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What are the differences between procedural memory and episodic memory?

- Procedural memories are memories of motor skills/actions/muscle memories; episodic memories are memories of life events.
- Procedural memories are unavailable for conscious inspection/difficult to explain verbally; episodic memories can be expressed verbally (declarative).
- Procedural memories may be more resistant to forgetting/amnesia.
- Each type of memory may reside in a different area of the brain.


Which memory uses acoustic-based coding?

The short-term memory.


Which memory uses semantic-based coding?

The long-term memory.


What is one study into the effects of leading questions on eyewitness testimony?

Loftus and Palmer (1974) - estimates of speed based on changing verb in the critical question.


What are some evaluations of research into misleading information?

- Real-life application - links to cognitive interview.
- Use of artificial materials in studies, e.g. films/videos - less anxiety-inducing than in real life.
- Demand characteristics in lab studies reduce validity.
- Lack of consequences in lab studies compared to real-life - Foster et al. (1994).
- Memory for important events/details is less susceptible to distortion.