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Flashcards in Definitions and Descriptions Deck (297)
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1

ABC Model

A cognitive approach to understanding mental disorders, focusing on the effects of irrational beliefs on emotions.

2

Agentic State

A person sees themself as an agent for carrying out another person's wishes.

3

Aim

A statement of what the researcher intends to find out in a research study.

4

Anxiety

An unpleasant emotional state.

5

Attachment

An emotional bond between two people.
A two-way process that endures over time.
It serves the function of protecting an infant.

6

Authoritarian Personality

A distinct personality pattern characterised by strict adherence to conventional values and a belief in absolute obedience or submission to authority.

7

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

Governs the brain's involuntary activities and is self-regulating. It's divided into the sympathetic branch and the parasympathetic branch.

8

Behaviourist

Believing that human behaviour can be explained in terms of conditioning, without the need to consider thoughts/feelings.

9

Biological Approach

Views humans as biological organisms and so provides biological explanations for all aspects of psychological functioning.

10

Brain

The part of the central nervous system that is responsible for coordinating sensation, intellectual and nervous activity.

11

Brain Plasticity

The brain's ability to modify its own structure and function as a result of experience.

12

Broca's area

An area in the frontal lobe of the brain, usually in the left hemisphere, related to speech production.

13

Capacity

This is a measure of how much can be held in memory. It's represented in terms of bits of information, such as number of digits.

14

Case Study

A research investigation that involves a detailed study of a single individual, institution or event.
They provide a rich record of human experience but are hard to generalise from.

15

Central Executive

Monitors and coordinates all other mental functions in working memory.

16

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Comprises the brain and spinal cord. It receives information from the senses and controls the body's responses.

17

Circadian Rhythm

A pattern of behaviour that occurs or recurs aproximately very 24 hour, and which is set and reset by environmental light levels.

18

Classical Conditioning

Learning through association. A neutral stimulus is consistently paired with an unconditioned stimulus so that it eventually takes on the properties of this stimulus and is able to produce a conditioned response.

19

Closed Questions

Questions that have a predetermined range of answers from which respondents select one.
Produces quantitative data.

20

Co-variable

The two measured variables in a correlational analysis.
They must be continuous.

21

Coding

The way information is changed so that it can be stored in memory. Information enters the brain via the senses and is then stored in various forms, such as visual, acoustic or semantic codes.

22

Cognitive

Relates to mental processes such as perception, memory and reasoning.

23

Cognitive-behavioural Therapy (CBT)

A combination of cognitive therapy and behavioural therapy.

24

Cognitive Interview

A police technique for interviewing witnesses to a crime, which encourages them to recreate the original context of the crime in order to increase the accessibility of stored information. Because our memory is made up of a network of associations rather than of discrete events, memories are accessed using multiple retrieval strategies.

25

Cognitive Neuroscience

An area of psychology dedicated to the underlying neural bases of cognitive functions.

26

Commitment

The degree to which members of a minority are dedicated to a particular cause or activity. The greater the perceived commitment, the greater the influence.

27

Compliance

Occurs when an individual accepts influence because they hope to achieve a favourable reaction from those around them. An attitude or behaviour is adopted not because of its content, but because of the rewards or approval associated with its adoption.

28

Computer Model

Refers to the process of using computer analogies as a representation of human cognition.

29

Concordance Rate

A measure of genetic similarity.

30

Conditions of Worth

Conditions imposed on an individual's behaviour and development that are considered necessary to earn positive regard from significant others.