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When was the Public Health Act?



What was the catalyst for reform?

The anxiety caused by the new cholera epidemic sweeping Europe


What were the acts provision based on?

The findings and recommendation made by Edwin Chadwick in his Report On thé Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring population of Great Britain


What did the act create ?

Central General Board of Health


What is the central General Board of health ?

A provisional body which would be responsible for advising on epidemics and disease and prevention and had responsibility for local board of healths


Why was the General Board of Health ineffective?

It had no power to compel them to implement the provisions of the act


An example of an inspection

In Durham, the city council, the cathedral, the university and the medical professions petitioned for an inspection because the morality was too high


What was the result of the public health act of 1848?

it established a Central Board of Health whose job it was to improve sanitation and living standards in towns and populous areas in England and Wales


The 1848 Public Health Act put the General Board of Health in charge of?

water, sewage, drainage, cleaning, paving, and environmental health regulation


Who was Edwin Chadwick?

one of the people behind the 1834 Poor Law, which first led him to investigate the issue of sanitation amongst the poor whilst he worked as a secretary to the Poor Law Commissioners


What did Edwin Chadwick argue?

the more the state did to help the poor, the fewer of them would seek out those provisions from the state and especially applied to places of work as much of these state provisions were paid out to families of men who had died due to unsanitary workplaces. In order to benefit long term, the state ought to invest in the short term


what were the most important aspects of public health conditions to improve?

- drainage and provisions of sewers
- the removal of all refuse from houses, streets and roads
-the provision of clean drinking water
-the appointment of a medical officer for each town


Why was the Public health Act important?

Until 1848, the government intervening for citizens health was not widespread nor commonly agreed upon and although the law was very limited ut can be seen as an ear of public health reforms that were to lead all the way up to the creation of the NHS in the 20th century


What did Chadwick's recommendations mean for rich citizens?

that councils would have to increase the rates and this would be unpopular with the better off citizens


In the Cholera epidemic in 1848, how many people died?

-over 3000 people died in Glamorgan
- 350 in Cardiff
-1389 in Merthyr Tydfil


What did Edwin Chadwick suggest about middle class?

Chadwick claimed that middle class people lived longer and healthier lives because they could afford to pay to have their sewage removed and to have fresh water piped into their homes


What was the average age of death for the professional class compared to the working class?

In liverpool, average death age was 35 for professional class and 15 for the working class


Why did Chadwick criticise private health companies?

Chadwick argued that these services should be supplied by public organisations and pointed out that private companies were only willing to supply these services to those people who could afford them, whereas public organisations could make sure everybody received these services.


What did Chadwick propose to do for the sewage?

The government needed to provide a supply of piped water and an entirely new system of sewers


Who opposed Chadwick?

-the owners of private companies who in the past had made very large profits from supplying fresh water to middle class districts in towns and cities
- prosperous householders who were already paying higher taxes and were worried that Chadwick's proposal would mean them paying higher taxes


lassiez - faire

a belief that government should not interfere in the free market and argued that it was up to individuals to decide what goods or services they wanted to buy


what did George Hudson, the conservative MP state in the House of commons?

'the people want to be left to manage their own affairs; they do not want parliament... interfering in everybody's business'


What was the Health of Towns Association?

an orgnaisaton formed by doctors who began a propaganda campaign in favour of the Public Health Bill


When did the Health of Towns association send parliament a petition in favour of the Public Health Bill

June 1847


How many signatures did the Health of Towns Association contain in June 1847?

In 1847, the association sent Parliament a petition that contained over 32,000 signatures -was not enough to persuade parliament and in July the bill was defeated


How many people died in 1831 in the cholera outbreak?

over 16,000


Board of Health

had the power to advise and assist towns which wanted to improve public sanitation


When could local boards of health be established?

when more than 1 tenth of the ratepayers agreed to it or if the death rate was higher than 23 per 1000


In September 1848 how many people died of cholera?



By 1864, how many local boards of health had been set up in towns and cities?

400 and had taken up powers granted under the Act E.g. Liverpool and Manchester purchased land in Wales and the Lake District to build dams and ensure a supply of water