Quiz 11 (exam 3) Flashcards Preview

Human Form and Funciton > Quiz 11 (exam 3) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Quiz 11 (exam 3) Deck (137):
1

Feedback mechanisms generally involve what four features?

System variable
Set point
Detector
Corrective mechanism

2

List three things that hormones can control

Rates of enzymatic reactions

Movement of ions or molecules across membranes

Gene expression and protein synthesis

3

The thyroid hormones are produced from the _____ and control ______

Thyroid

Metabolism

4

Cortisol is produced from the _____. It is involved in....

Adrenal cortex

Energy metabolism
Stress response

5

Mineralocorticoids is produced from the ____ and functions to .....

Adrenal cortex

Regulates plasma volume effects via on serum electrolytes

6

Vasopressin (ADH) is produced from the ______ and functions to _____

Posterior pituitary

Regulates plasma osmolality by altering aqueduct concentration in collecting duct

7

Parathyroid hormone is produced from the _____ and functions to.....

Parathyroids

Regulates calcium and phosphate levels (increases blood calcium)

8

What are four factors that effect circulating hormone levels?

Synthesis and secretion rates

Rates of inactivation

Receptor binding or availability of receptors

Affinity of a given hormone for plasma carriers (bound forms = inactive forms_)

9

What are the three chemical classifications of hormones?

What are the solubility/polarity classifications of hormones?

Amine (tyrosine derivative)

Peptide

Steroid


Lipophilic/hydrophilic

10

Which has a longer half life peptide or steroid hormones?

Steroid hormones

11

What are the two types of amine derived hormones?

Catecholamines

Thyroid hormones

12

Catecholamines are lipophilic or hydrophilic? What about thyroid hormones?

Catecholamines - hydrophilic

Thyroid hormones - lipophilic

13

Which have longer half lives, thyroid hormones or catecholamines?

Thyroid hormones

14

What types of hormones are the most numerous in the body?

Peptide hormones

15

Peptide hormones are produced by first creating ____ which can then be cleaved to an active form

Preprohormones

16

Protein hormones can be bound to carrier proteins to increase their lifetime. When bound to carrier proteins are they considered active or inactive?

Inactive

17

What are the three steps to produce peptide hormones?

Genes from DNA is transcribed then translated to produce protein precursors

Preprohormone is formed in ER before broken down to pro hormone in the golgi

Posttranslational modifications occur in the golgi. Then secreted. Post secretory modifications may occur

18

All steroid hormones are derived from...

Cholesterol

19

True or false... steroid hormones must be carried in plasma by hormone-specific plasma binding globulins

True. Like albumin

20

What is the aromotase enzyme?

Converts androgens to estrogens. Performed by trophoblastic tumors in the brain and some normal adipose tissue. They use hormones circulated in the blood to convert to different hormones

21

Where is most estrogen produced in post menopausal women?

Adipose tissue

22

What is the difference between the long-loop negative feedback and short-loop negative feedback?

Long loop negative feedback - the hormone released from the endocrine gland will inhibit the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland

Short loop negative feedback - the tropic hormone (hormone that goes from anterior pituitary to endocrine gland) will inhibit the hypothalamus

23

Which the anterior or posterior pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus?

Posterior pituitary

24

What is the infundibular stalk?

Structure that connects the posterior pituitary to the hypothalamus

25

What is the hypohyseal portal system?

Surrounds the anterior pituitary. Hypothalamic releasing hormones are released in here to get to the anterior pituitary. In the posterior pituitary, on the other hand, the hormones are directly produced by the neurons in they hypothalamus

26

The adrenocorticotropic hormone is released from the ____ and will have an effect on the ____, to cause.....

Anterior pituitary

Adrenal gland

Helps regulate fluid balance, helps body cope with stress

27

What maintains the control of ADH secretion?

Hypothalamic osmoreceptors (ADH is actually produced in the hypothalamus but stored in the posterior pituitary

28

All adrenocortical hormones are ____ derived. List the three different types and in what layer of the cortex they are found

Steroid derived

Mineralocorticoids - zona glomerulosa

Glucocorticoids - zona fasciculata

Adrenal androgens - zona reticulata

29

The adrenal medulla secretes....

Catecholamines like epinephrine

30

Aldosterone is a ____ and promotes ____ reabsorption and potassium _____

Mineralocorticoid

Sodium

Excretion


It has its affect on the collecting duct and distal tubule

31

What is aldosterone escape?

Too much aldosterone. Persistently elevated extracellular fluid, results in pressure dieresis in the kidneys.

Without aldosterone, the kidney loses excessive amounts of sodium and water.

32

What happens when aldosterone secretions are increased?

Hypokalemia (results in muscle weakness)

Whenever sodium is reabsorbed, potassium is excreted, resulting in low levels of potassium

33

What is a result of decreased levels of aldosterone?

Hyperkalemia - may lead to cardiac toxicity

34

Cortisol is a ____ and it functions to...

Glucocorticoid

Stimulates gluconeogenesis in the liver and decreases glucose use in hepatocytes.

Basically it results in an overal increase in serum glucose

It also decreases protein stores by Inhibiton of protein synthesis and promotes protein catabolism

35

True or false... cortisol also has an anti-inflammatory effect

True

36

What are some hormones that are considered adrenal androgens? What do they do?

DHEA, androstenedione.

It will basically result in an increase of male sex hormones

37

ACTH will caus an increase in what two hormones?

Adrenal hormones and cortisol

38

The sympathetic nervous system will cause the adrenal medulla to secrete 80% of ____ and 20% of ____

Epinephrine

Norepinephrine

39

The ____ is involved in the acute stress response while the ____ is involved in the long-term stress response

Medulla

Cortex

40

Describe the cortisol regulation by the HPA axis

Hypothalamus is signaled by stress, circadian rhythm, or pro-inflammatory cytokines to release CRH

CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to release ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone).

ACTH will cause the release of cortisol, and adrenal hormones. Cortisol will suppress both CRF and ACTH release in a negative feedback loop

41

What are the three main types of endocrine disorders?

Endocrine gland hyposecretion (type 1 diabetes)

Hormone resistance (type two diabetes)

Hormone excess (acromegaly)

42

What causes addisons disease? What are its symptoms?

Adrenal insufficiency

Causes fatigue, stomach upset, dehydration, skin changes

43

Excessive production of what hormone results in Cushing's syndrome? What are its symptoms?

ACTH, which results in overproduction of cortisol

Red cheeks, bloated stomach with stretch marks, tumors

44

What are the differences between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism?

Hypothyroidism - not enough thyroid hormones leads to fatigue, hashimotos disease, depression

Hyperthyroidism - too much thyroid hormone leads to fast heart rate, sweating, bulging eyes.

Both can result in goiters

45

The sphenopalatine artery arises from ____ and will supply _____

3rd part of maxillary artery

Incisive foramen

46

Greater palatine artery arises from _____ and supplies ____

3rd part of maxillary

Greater palatine foramen

47

Lesser palatine artery arises from ____ and supplies ____

3rd part of maxillary

Lesser palatine foramen

48

The ascending palatine artery arises from ____ and supplies blood to ____

Branch of facial

Serves the soft palate

49

The ascending pharyngeal artery arises from ___ and serves blood to the _____

Branch of ECA

Serves the soft palate

50

The superior labial nerve branches from what nerve?

Branches from infraorbital, which is a branch of V2

51

The middle superior alveolar branch is a branch from what nerve?

Infraorbital nerve, which is a branch of V2

52

The long buccal nerve is a branch from...?

Trigeminal. V3

Buccal is motor from facial
Long buccal is sensory from
V3

53

The greater and lesser palatine nerves are branches from...?

Pterygopalatine ganglion

54

What is the bartholin?

Duct that drains into floor of mouth via sublingual caruncle

55

The sublingual gland is innervated by...

Chorda tympani. Via lingual branch of V3

56

What is the saliva composition of the sublingual gland?

5% saliva, mixed but mostly mucous

57

What is the duct that drains the submandibular gland into the floor of mouth via sublingual ____?

Warhtin's duct

Caruncle

58

What artery supplies the submandibular gland?

Facial artery

59

What is the name of the duct that drains the parotid gland? Wher does it drain?

Stensen's duct drains into rear/upper area

60

What is the innervation of the parotid gland?

Lesser petrosal via V3 (aurictemporal)

61

What artery supplies the parotid gland?

Transverse facial branches of superficial temporal

62

Which salivary gland produces amylase?

Parotid

63

What are Sialoliths?

Stones of the parotid gland that blocks the ducts, causes pain and swelling

64

In the ovary, ____ cells provide androgens which stimulate the ____ cells and produce the circulating ____

The cal

Granulosa

Estrogens

65

Estrogens feedback inhibit....

GnRH
LH
FSH

66

Inhibits are produced from ____ cells and these function to inhibit _____

Granulosa

FSH secretion

67

LH stimulates ____ cells, while both LH and FSH stimulate ______ cells

Thecal
Granulosa

68

All natural estrogens are characterized by ....

18 carbon skeleton called an estrane skeleton

69

Estradiol (E2) is predominant when?

What about Estrone (E1)

What about Estriol (E3)

Reproductive years

Menopause

Pregnancy

70

List 8 things that estrogens can do

Sexual maturation
Increase CNS excitability
Stimulate endometrial proliferation and uterine growth

Maintenance of healthy blood vessels
Increase SHBG
Reduce rate of bone readsorption
Alter plasma lipids (Increase HDL)
Enhance blood coagulability

71

Estrogen is ____ during menses. So the pituitary makes and secretes ____ and _____

Low

FSH and LH

72

Prior to ovulation, LH acts predominantly on the ____ cells

Theca

73

What causes the LH surge that causes ovulation?

Estrogen inhibits the release of LH. Once enough is built up enough it is released because the high levels of E2 reaches a tripping point in which it briefly flips the GNRH feedback from negative to positive. This stimulates the hypothalamus to release mor GnRH which tells the anterior pituitary to release LH and some FSH

74

How long does it take for ovulation to occur after the peak of the LH surge?

10-12 hours

75

Explain the ovulatory mechanism

Includes the release of metalloproteinases that weaken the ovarian wall; blood flow to the area stops and the follicle wall thins and ruptures, allowing the egg to be released

76

What occurs in the luteal phase

Begins at ovulation, the remaining ovarian cells become the corpus luteum and produces some E2 but mostly a boat load of progesterone. This lasts ~14 days

77

What does progesterone do?

Inhibits pituitary release of LH and FSH, usually preventing a second ovulation event

Prepares the uterine wall for implantation (more vascularized and thickening)

If fertilization doesn't occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, (thus less progesterone), and becomes the corpus albicans, and shedding results (menses)

78

Following ovulation, what cells converts enzymatic activity from predominantly estrogen-producing to progesterone producing as the corpus luteum develops/

Granulosa cells

79

True or false, progesterone (a progestin) is a precursor to the synthesis of all estrogens

True

80

What are some physiological effects of progesterone?

Prepares uterus for implantation
Plays a role in the development of the secretory mechanism of the breast
Increases fat deposition
Decrease CNS excitability
Increase insulin levels
Increases body temp
Decreases PCO2 during pregnancy

81

Critical body weight must be erased for puberty in women to occur. Involves leptin. How does leptin start the process of ovarian cycle stuff?

If leptin levels are adequate, the hypothalamus becomes less sensitive to estrogen and GNRH release begins

82

True or false... ovulation usually begins with the menarche (first menses)

False

83

What is perimenopause?

Can proceed menopause by 1-10 years.

Fluctuations of gonadotropins and estradiol levels are observed , believed to be due to loss of inhibins. (Loss of inhibition of FSH)

84

At onset of menopause, ___levels are markedly elevated

FSH

85

In postmenopausal women, what estrogen is formed from testosterone by _____ in _____

E1

Aromatase enzyme in adipocytes

86

Upon implantation, _____ cells begin secreting ______, which functions to ....

Trophoblast

hCG

Supports the corpus luteum which is producing progesterone which functions to spport the endometrial lining and therefore maintains pregnancy

87

What are progesterone's effects during pregnancy?

Prevents uterine contractions

Moderates maternal immune response to preserve pregnancy

Stimulates lobular-alveolar development in mammary glands

Suppresses milk synthesis until child birth

88

What takes over the production of progesterone by about week 8 if pregnancy occurs?

Placenta

89

How is estrogen involved in parturition?

Induces oxytocin receptors on uterus

90

What is relaxin's role in partuition?

Peptide hormone secreted by the placenta to relax the cervix and pelvic ligaments to ease birth

91

Prolactin is under predominant inhibitory control. What inhibits its release?

Prolactin inhibitory factor (dopamine) which is secreted by the hypothalamus

92

Milk ejection is promoted by what hormone?

Oxytocin (positive feedback)

93

The first fluid released from breast after birth is called ____. It is high in _____ but low in ____

Colostrum

Proteins/carbohydrates

Fat

94

The head of the sperm contains the ____ which is....

Acrosome

It is a vesicles full of enzymes that can breakdown the outer layer of the ovum during the acrosome reaction. This will allow fusion of the sperm with the ovum

95

Other than DNA, what else does the sperm cell contribute to the ovum?

Centrioles (which are a complex of micotubules)

96

What is the axoneme?

A cytoskeleton component of the sperm flagella which is formed from microtubules.

97

The seminiferous tubules are lined with _____ (which are ____)

Spermatogonia

Diploid germinal epithelial cells

98

Spermatogonia can undergo mitosis or meiosis... true or false

True

99

What are serotoli cells?

These are 'nurses' that surround the spermatogonia to help them sperm cells develop. They also for the blood-testis barrier

100

The leydig cells lay on the outer surface of the seminiferous tubules. They produce ____ in response to ____, which initiatives spermatogenesis

Testosterone

LH

101

How long does it take for spermatogenesis to occur?

64 days

102

What is inhibin's role in hormonal control of spermatogenesis?

Produced by sertoli cells

Negative feedback of anterior pituitary to inhibit FSH release (acts on anterior pituitary)

103

What is the role of Growth Hormone in the hormonal control of spermatogenesis?

Basic total regulation of metabolism of testes

104

LH stimulates ___ cells while FSH stimulates _____ cells.

____ is secreted by leydig cells which drives division of spermatogonia

Sertoli cells secrete ____ which regulates spermatogenesis. This hormone is formed from ____

Leydig

Sertoli

Testosterone

Estrogen

Testosterone

105

What is the tubulus rectus?

Connection of seminiferous tubules with the rete testes

106

What is the rete testes?

Tubule which delivers maturing sperm to the epididymis and serves to reabsorb some tubular fluid, the concentrating the sperm

107

Once the sperm are in the epididmyis for about a day....

They are capable of movement (they mature), but they do not move because they are inhibited by the factors in the fluid

108

What are some things that the seminal vesicles add to the mixture?

Fructose: fuel for sperm motility

Prostaglandins: thin cervical mucus, allowing sperm ingress, and possibly causing reverse peristaltic contraction bringing sperm inwards (?)
Fibrinogen: functions to form a clot later on

109

The seminal vesicles contribute about ____% of the final product

60-70

110

Through what structure does the semen pass to enter the prostate?

Internal urethra

111

What are some things that the prostate gland adds? What do they do?

Clotting enzymes: causes semen to clot (more likely to result in fertilization)
Pro-fibrinolysin: can helpfully breakdown the clot semen forms
Various alkaloids: neutralizes the pH of the vagina somewhat for better sperm survival and motility

112

In total, the prostate gland contributes ____% of the final product

25-30

113

How much of total semen is actual sperm?

5%

114

What do bulbouretrhal glands do? What percent do they contribute to the total semen?

Lubricant for the urethra to help sperm along

Can transmit disease

1% of total final ejaculate volume

115

What pH is the semen?

7.5

116

What gives semen its milky appearance?

Fluid from the prostate

117

Sperm can survive in utero for how long?

2-3 days

118

Describe sperm capacitation

Semen contains mobility inhibiting factors

Upon entering the vagina these are washed away, 'capacitating' the sperm' meaning that the become motile.

The cell membrane around the acrosome weakens allowing easier rupture

Calcium permeability increases which causes a more vigorous motion of flagella

119

Pre-ejaculate is released in response to the _____ nerves

Parasympathetic (S2-4)

120

What factors causes vasodilation in the penis?

NO, ACH, other vasoactive transmitters

121

What nerves cause contraction of the vas deferens to move the sperm towards the seminal vesicles?

Sympathetic

122

Define emission

Passing of future ejaculate into the prostate, then passing into the internal urethra where it mixes with bulbourethral gland

123

Describe the order of type of epithelium found in salivary glands from innermost to outermost.

Intercalated - simple cuboidal

Striated - simple columnar

Interlobar - stratified columnar

124

Which branch of V does not run through the cavernous sinus?

V3

125

What artery ascends within the parotid gland?

Superficial temporal

126

What nerve innervates the tensor veli palatini muscle. Specifically

Pterygoid nerve from V3

127

True or false... the inferior thyroid supplies part of the pharynx

True

128

If the macula densa senses a decrease in the NaCl concentration, it means that the GFR is too ____

Low

129

The sodium potassium ATPases that are used to set of the concentration gradient to help pull things like hydrogen ions and glucose across the cells into the peritubular capillaries are located where?

On the basolateral side of the cell

130

Where does most water readsorption take place in the kidney?

In the loop of henle

131

What is the primary precursor for amino acid production?

Glucose

132

The large subunit of the ribosome binds to the mRNA after ____ has already attached?

The methionine anticodon

133

About what day of the menstral cycle does ovulation occur?

Day 13

134

A woman's first ovulation could occur how many years after her first menstruation?

2-4 years

135

What nerve gives sensation to the uvula?

Lesser palatine

136

Enzymes that produce steroid hormones are located in what organelles?

Mitochondria and smooth ER.

137

How is the adrenal medulla stimulated to produce catecholamines?

Ach from sympathetic nerves