Flashcards in Quiz 9 Deck (115):
What is the most anterior arch in the oral cavity?
What is the structure located between the palatoglossal arch and the palatopharyngeal arch?
What nerve innervates the mylohyoid muscle?
What nerve innervates the geniohyoid muscle?
What nerve innervates the stylohyoid muscle?
What nerve innervates the palatoglossus muscle?
Name the tongue intrinsic muscles
If you tell a patient to stick out their tongue straight out but it moves to the left, what nerve is damaged?
The left hypoglossal nerve
What nerve goes through the incisal foramen?
What nerve covers the greatest surface of the hard palate? What foramen does it pass through?
Greater palatine nerve
Goes through the greater palatine foramen
What nerve gives sensory innervation to the lateral posterior portions of the palate?
Lesser palatine nerve
The nerves that give sensory innervation to the hard palate arise from what cranial nerve?
What is the name of the muscle that elevates the soft palate? What is it innervated by?
Lavatory veil palatini muscle (CN X)
What muscle tenses the soft palate? What cranial nerve is it innervated by?
Tensor veil palatini muscle (CN V3)
The tensor veil palatini muscle stretches around what boney structure?
What is the action of the palatoglossus muscle?
Pulls tongue superiorily
What muscle separates the oral cavity and nasopharynx?
What is an action of the palatopharyngeous muscle?
Elevates larynx and pharynx
The stylopharyngeous muscle runs in betrween what two muscles?
Superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors
What muscle of the pharynx is most deep?
The ____ nerve innervates all pharynx muscles besides the _____, which is innervated by ____.
Describe the sensory innervation of
What is the name of the cartilage that sits on top of the cricoid cartilage?
True or false... the cricoid cartilage is thicker anteriorly than it is posteriorly.
False, it's the opposite
The larynx is solely innervated by what cranial nerve?
VEGAS BABY!!! 😎🤑
What branch of vagus innervates the cricothyroideus muscle?
The internal laryngeal nerve enters the larynx through what structure?
The thyrohyoid ligament
The recurrent laryngeal nerve has what functions?
Motor innervation of the laryngeal muscles
Sensory below vocal cords
Describe the cricoarytenoid joint
Synovial joint between cricoid and arytenoid
Involved in abducting and addicting the vocal ligaments
What muscles are responsible for addicting the vocal ligaments?
What about abducting?
Adducting - lateral cricoarytenoid muscles
Abducting - posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
What is the function of the cricothyroideus muscle?
Pulls thyroid cartilage anteriorly to increase tension in the vocal ligaments
All tongue muscles are innervated by ___ except for ____ which is innervated by ___.
All palate muscles are innervated by ___ except for ____, which is innervated by ____.
Tensor veil palatini muscle
All pharyngeal muscles are innervated by ____ except for ____,which is innervated by ____.
All laryngeal muscles are innervated by ____. All muscles are innervated by the ____ branch except for ____ which is innervated by the ____ branch.
Vagus (mostly recurrent)
External laryngeal (branches from superior laryngeal)
What is the name of the sinus(es) that connect the sigmoid and cavernousus sinuses?
Greater and lesser petrosal
Which branches of V run through the cavernous sinus?
V1 and v2
Name the pathway from common facial vein to cavernous sinus
Ophthalmic cavernous sinus
What are the four sections of the interna, carotid artery?
What section of the internal carotid artery does the ophthalmic artery arise from? What about the artery of pterygoid canal?
How does the ophthalmic artery enter the orbit?
True or false... the ophthalmic artery supplies blood to the nasal cavity via superior and inferior branches
False. Although it does supply blood to the nasal cavity, it's does so by anterior and posterior branches
Name the branches of the superior thyroid artery
What arteries does the superior thyroid artery anastomose with?
Contralateal thyroid artery
Inferior thyroid branch
Name the branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery
Pharyngeal, meningeal, tympanic
The Ascending pharyngeal artery ascends deep to the ___ and anterior to the ____.
Does the ascending pharyngeal artery emerge from the ECA dorsally or ventrally?
Name the branches of the lingual artery
The lingual artery runs deep to the ___ muscle
Which branches of the lingual artery anastomose with their contralateral side? Why can't the others anastomose?
The deep and sublingual branches cannot anastomose because of the lingual septum
Name the branches of the facial artery
The angular branch of the facial artery anastomoses with the ____ artery, that arises from the ____ portion of the ____
The facial artery runs deep to the ____ ____ and the ____ _____
What artery supplies blood to the superior masticatory muscles?
Name the branches of the superficial temporal artery
The superficial temporal artery ascends within the ___ ___, anterior to the _____
True or false... the superficial temporal artery supplies blood to muscles of facial expression
What artery runs inferior/posterior to the mastoid process?
Name the branches of the occipital artery
The _____ branch of the occipital artery anastomoses with the _____ ______ artery and with _____ arteries
Transverse cervical (thyrocervical trunk)
What triangle does the occipital artery emerge from?
Name the branches of the posterior auricular artery
Ha trick question! 😈There are no branches
The posterior auricular artery runs in between what two boney structures?
External acoustic meatus and mastoid process
Name the three parts of the maxillary artery and what they supply
Mandibular - ear, mandible
Pterygoid - muscles of mastication
Pterygopalatine - maxilla, palate, nasal
Name the superior and inferior branches of the mandibular portion of the maxillary artery
The mental branch comes off of what branch?
Inferior alveolar branch of the mandibular portion of the maxillary artery branch of the ECA arising from the aorta/brachiocephalic arising from the left ventricle of the heart 😵
What artery supplies blood to the TMJ?
Deep auricular (a superior branch of the mandibular portion of the maxillary artery)
What does the pterygoid portion primarily supply blood to?
Muscles of mastication
Name the branches of the pterygoid portion.
Name the branches that come off of the pterygopalatine portion
Superior alveolar (middle)
Superior alveolar (posterior)
What artery branches off of the infraorbital artery?
Superior alveolar (anterior)
What artery branches off of the descending palatine artery?
Greater and lesser palatine arteries
What arteries branch off of the sphenopalatine artery?
What arteries anastomose in kiesselbach's area?
Gr. Palatine (maxillary)
Superior labial (facial)
What is the technical function of teeth/
Surviving cyclical loading
What is the oral vestibule?
3D space outside the teeth
What makes up the posterior border of the oral cavity?
Oropharyngeal isthmus (palatopharyngeal arch)
What is the primary epithelial type of the oral mucosa?
Stratified squamous (keratinized (ortho and para) and non-keratinized)
Where is the epithelium of the oral mucosa derived from?
Ectoderm (not endoderm like rest of gut)
True or false... the lamina propria in the oral mucosa is less pronounced than in the rest of the gut
False. It is much more pronounced in the oral mucosa
Name two differences between lining mucosa and masticatory mucosa
Lining mucosa has flatter, rounded rete pegs. It is also unkeratinized
Masticatory mucosa has sharper and more pronounced rete pegs. It is keratinized
Name the tissues that considered masticatory mucosa
Parts of dorsum of tongue
What is the only specialized mucosa in the oral cavity?
Taste buds on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue
What is the oral mucoperiosteum?
Robust lamina propria attaches directly to bone.
A lot more collagen
Where would you find oral mucoperiosteum?
Midline of hard palate
How can you differentiate between orthokeratinized and parakeratinized?
There are no nuclei visible in orthokeratinized while there are some nuclei visible in parakeratinized in the superficial most layer
What two layers of epidermis are missing in nonkeratinized tissue?
Stratum granulosm and stratum corneum
True or false... the epithelium found in the cheek lacks a stratum granulosum layer
True. It is non-keratinized epithelium so it lacks the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum
True or false... you are unlikely to find glandular tissue in the soft palate
What structure separates oral and nasal cavities? Thus what is significant about its epithelium?
It has one side of lining oral mucosa, the other side is respiratory epithelium
Histologically, how can you tell the difference between midline palate and lateral palate (hard)?
The midline palate is oromucoperineum. It lacks a submucosa, has a lot more collagen, has a robust lamina propria
What structure is responsible for stipling in gingiva?
What structure attaches the junctional epithelium to the teeth?
Hemidesmosomes (on each side)
What divides the attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa?
What fiber is abundant in the alveolar mucosa?
What type of epithelium is found within the vermillion border?
Parakeratinized stratified squamous
Other than epithelial cells, what is the most abundant cell type found in the oral mucosa?
What are three cell types (other than keratinocytes) found in the oral mucosa
Langerhans cells (found in stratum spinosum, involved in immune system)
Merely cells (sensory)
Specialized mucosa surface covers the _____ ___ ____ of the dorsal tongue
Anterior two thirds
What are the four types of papillae found on the tongue? What do they do?/where are they found?
Filiform - most abundant, no taste buds
Fungiform - found mostly at the tip of tongue
Foliate- posterior and sides of tongue - less prominent in adults
Circumvallate - junction of body and base of tonsillar area, quite large
What type of epithelium are found in filiform papillae?
What type of epithelium is found in fungiform papillae? Where are the taste buds located?
Non keratinized epithelium
Taste buds on upper surface
What type of epithelium is found on foliate papillae? Where are the taste buds located?
Taste buds found on the sides of crypts
What type of epithelium is found in circumvallate papillae? Where are the taste buds located? What special glands are located here?
Taste buds located in crypts
Von Ebner's glands (serous salivary glands)
What type of cells are taste buds?
Chemoreceptive spindle cells
What are some things in saliva that help with protection?
Lactoferrin, lysozyme, defending, IGA
What type of saliva does the parotid gland secrete? Is it active or passive?
Also secretes A amylase
Submandibular gland. Does it secrete passive or active saliva? Mucus or serous?
Both mucus and serous
Secretes the most saliva
Which salivary gland secretes mostly mucous? And contributes the least amount of saliva?
What cells help push saliva out of glands?
Saliva first flows into ____ ducts and then into ____ ducts
What is the difference between intercalated ducts and striated ducts?
Intercalated ducts has simple cuboidal epithelium.
Striated ducts usually have simple columnar epithelium, secrete bicarbonate and absorb sodium and chloride
What duct is large and dumps into excretory ducts?
The salpingopharyngeous muscle branches off of what muscle?