Quiz 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 9 Deck (115):
1

What is the most anterior arch in the oral cavity?

Palatoglossal arch

2

What is the structure located between the palatoglossal arch and the palatopharyngeal arch?

Palatine tonsils

3

What nerve innervates the mylohyoid muscle?

CN V3

4

What nerve innervates the geniohyoid muscle?

Hypoglossal

5

What nerve innervates the stylohyoid muscle?

Facial

6

What nerve innervates the palatoglossus muscle?

Vagus

7

Name the tongue intrinsic muscles

Superior longitudinal
Vertical
Transverse muscle
Inferior longitudinal

8

If you tell a patient to stick out their tongue straight out but it moves to the left, what nerve is damaged?

The left hypoglossal nerve

9

What nerve goes through the incisal foramen?

Nasopalatine nerve

10

What nerve covers the greatest surface of the hard palate? What foramen does it pass through?

Greater palatine nerve

Goes through the greater palatine foramen

11

What nerve gives sensory innervation to the lateral posterior portions of the palate?

Lesser palatine nerve

12

The nerves that give sensory innervation to the hard palate arise from what cranial nerve?

V2

13

What is the name of the muscle that elevates the soft palate? What is it innervated by?

Lavatory veil palatini muscle (CN X)

14

What muscle tenses the soft palate? What cranial nerve is it innervated by?

Tensor veil palatini muscle (CN V3)

15

The tensor veil palatini muscle stretches around what boney structure?

Pterygoid hamulus

16

What is the action of the palatoglossus muscle?

Pulls tongue superiorily

17

What muscle separates the oral cavity and nasopharynx?

Uvula muscle

18

What is an action of the palatopharyngeous muscle?

Elevates larynx and pharynx

19

The stylopharyngeous muscle runs in betrween what two muscles?

Superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors

20

What muscle of the pharynx is most deep?

Palatopharyngeous

21

The ____ nerve innervates all pharynx muscles besides the _____, which is innervated by ____.

1) vagus
2) stylopharyngeus
3) glossopharyngeal

22

Describe the sensory innervation of
1) nasopharynx
2) oropharynx
3) laryngopharynx

1) V2
2) glossopharyngeal
3) vagus

23

What is the name of the cartilage that sits on top of the cricoid cartilage?

Arytenoid cartilage

24

True or false... the cricoid cartilage is thicker anteriorly than it is posteriorly.

False, it's the opposite

25

The larynx is solely innervated by what cranial nerve?

VEGAS BABY!!! πŸ˜ŽπŸ€‘

26

What branch of vagus innervates the cricothyroideus muscle?

External laryngeal

27

The internal laryngeal nerve enters the larynx through what structure?

The thyrohyoid ligament

28

The recurrent laryngeal nerve has what functions?

Motor innervation of the laryngeal muscles

Sensory below vocal cords

29

Describe the cricoarytenoid joint

Synovial joint between cricoid and arytenoid

Involved in abducting and addicting the vocal ligaments

30

What muscles are responsible for addicting the vocal ligaments?

What about abducting?

Adducting - lateral cricoarytenoid muscles

Abducting - posterior cricoarytenoid muscles

31

What is the function of the cricothyroideus muscle?

Pulls thyroid cartilage anteriorly to increase tension in the vocal ligaments

32

All tongue muscles are innervated by ___ except for ____ which is innervated by ___.

Hypoglossal

Palatoglossus

Vagus

33

All palate muscles are innervated by ___ except for ____, which is innervated by ____.

Vagus

Tensor veil palatini muscle

V3

34

All pharyngeal muscles are innervated by ____ except for ____,which is innervated by ____.

Vagus
Stylopharyngeous
Glossopharyngeal

35

All laryngeal muscles are innervated by ____. All muscles are innervated by the ____ branch except for ____ which is innervated by the ____ branch.

Vagus (mostly recurrent)

Cricothyroideus

External laryngeal (branches from superior laryngeal)

36

What is the name of the sinus(es) that connect the sigmoid and cavernousus sinuses?

Greater and lesser petrosal

37

Which branches of V run through the cavernous sinus?

V1 and v2

38

Name the pathway from common facial vein to cavernous sinus

Common facial
Facial
Angular
Ophthalmic cavernous sinus

39

What are the four sections of the interna, carotid artery?

Cervical
Petrous
Cavernous
Cerebral

40

What section of the internal carotid artery does the ophthalmic artery arise from? What about the artery of pterygoid canal?

1) Cerebral

2) Ptetrous

41

How does the ophthalmic artery enter the orbit?

Optic canal

42

True or false... the ophthalmic artery supplies blood to the nasal cavity via superior and inferior branches

False. Although it does supply blood to the nasal cavity, it's does so by anterior and posterior branches

43

Name the branches of the superior thyroid artery

Hyoid
Superior laryngeal
Cricothyroid
SCM

44

What arteries does the superior thyroid artery anastomose with?

Contralateal thyroid artery
Inferior thyroid branch

45

Name the branches of the ascending pharyngeal artery

Pharyngeal, meningeal, tympanic

46

The Ascending pharyngeal artery ascends deep to the ___ and anterior to the ____.

1) stylopharyngeus
2) ear

47

Does the ascending pharyngeal artery emerge from the ECA dorsally or ventrally?

Dorsally

48

Name the branches of the lingual artery

Dorsal lingual
Deep lingual
Sublingual

49

The lingual artery runs deep to the ___ muscle

Hyoglossus

50

Which branches of the lingual artery anastomose with their contralateral side? Why can't the others anastomose?

Dorsal branch

The deep and sublingual branches cannot anastomose because of the lingual septum

51

Name the branches of the facial artery

Angular
Superior labial
Lateral nasal
Inferior labial
Tonsillar

52

The angular branch of the facial artery anastomoses with the ____ artery, that arises from the ____ portion of the ____

Ophthalmic

Cerebral

ICA

53

The facial artery runs deep to the ____ ____ and the ____ _____

Digastric sling

Submandibular gland

54

What artery supplies blood to the superior masticatory muscles?

Superficial temporal

55

Name the branches of the superficial temporal artery

Parietal
Zygomatic/orbital
Transverse facial
Frontal

56

The superficial temporal artery ascends within the ___ ___, anterior to the _____

Parotid gland
Ear

57

True or false... the superficial temporal artery supplies blood to muscles of facial expression

TRUE

58

What artery runs inferior/posterior to the mastoid process?

Occipital artery

59

Name the branches of the occipital artery

Meningeal
Auricular
Descending
SCM

60

The _____ branch of the occipital artery anastomoses with the _____ ______ artery and with _____ arteries

Transverse cervical (thyrocervical trunk)

Vertebral

61

What triangle does the occipital artery emerge from?

Carotid triangle

62

Name the branches of the posterior auricular artery

Ha trick question! 😈There are no branches

63

The posterior auricular artery runs in between what two boney structures?

External acoustic meatus and mastoid process

64

Name the three parts of the maxillary artery and what they supply

Mandibular - ear, mandible

Pterygoid - muscles of mastication

Pterygopalatine - maxilla, palate, nasal

65

Name the superior and inferior branches of the mandibular portion of the maxillary artery

Inferior

Mylohyoid branch
Inferior alveolar
Mental

Superior

Deep Auricular
Anterior tympanic
Middle meningeal

66

The mental branch comes off of what branch?

Inferior alveolar branch of the mandibular portion of the maxillary artery branch of the ECA arising from the aorta/brachiocephalic arising from the left ventricle of the heart 😡

67

What artery supplies blood to the TMJ?

Deep auricular (a superior branch of the mandibular portion of the maxillary artery)

68

What does the pterygoid portion primarily supply blood to?

Muscles of mastication

69

Name the branches of the pterygoid portion.

Deep Temporal
Masseteric
Pterygoids
Buccal

70

Name the branches that come off of the pterygopalatine portion

Infraorbital
Superior alveolar (middle)
Superior alveolar (posterior)
Descending palatine
Sphenopalatine

71

What artery branches off of the infraorbital artery?

Superior alveolar (anterior)

72

What artery branches off of the descending palatine artery?

Greater and lesser palatine arteries

73

What arteries branch off of the sphenopalatine artery?

Posterior nasal
Posterior septal

74

What arteries anastomose in kiesselbach's area?

Ethmoidal (ophthalmic)
Septal (maxillary)
Gr. Palatine (maxillary)
Superior labial (facial)

75

What is the technical function of teeth/

Surviving cyclical loading

76

What is the oral vestibule?

3D space outside the teeth

77

What makes up the posterior border of the oral cavity?

Oropharyngeal isthmus (palatopharyngeal arch)

78

What is the primary epithelial type of the oral mucosa?

Stratified squamous (keratinized (ortho and para) and non-keratinized)

79

Where is the epithelium of the oral mucosa derived from?

Ectoderm (not endoderm like rest of gut)

80

True or false... the lamina propria in the oral mucosa is less pronounced than in the rest of the gut

False. It is much more pronounced in the oral mucosa

81

Name two differences between lining mucosa and masticatory mucosa

Lining mucosa has flatter, rounded rete pegs. It is also unkeratinized

Masticatory mucosa has sharper and more pronounced rete pegs. It is keratinized

82

Name the tissues that considered masticatory mucosa

Gingiva
Parts of dorsum of tongue
Hard palate

83

What is the only specialized mucosa in the oral cavity?

Taste buds on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the tongue

84

What is the oral mucoperiosteum?

No submucosa.
Robust lamina propria attaches directly to bone.
A lot more collagen

85

Where would you find oral mucoperiosteum?

Midline of hard palate
Attached gingiva

86

How can you differentiate between orthokeratinized and parakeratinized?

There are no nuclei visible in orthokeratinized while there are some nuclei visible in parakeratinized in the superficial most layer

87

What two layers of epidermis are missing in nonkeratinized tissue?

Stratum granulosm and stratum corneum

88

True or false... the epithelium found in the cheek lacks a stratum granulosum layer

True. It is non-keratinized epithelium so it lacks the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum

89

True or false... you are unlikely to find glandular tissue in the soft palate

False

90

What structure separates oral and nasal cavities? Thus what is significant about its epithelium?

Soft palate

It has one side of lining oral mucosa, the other side is respiratory epithelium

91

Histologically, how can you tell the difference between midline palate and lateral palate (hard)?

The midline palate is oromucoperineum. It lacks a submucosa, has a lot more collagen, has a robust lamina propria

92

What structure is responsible for stipling in gingiva?

Rete pegs

93

What structure attaches the junctional epithelium to the teeth?

Hemidesmosomes (on each side)

94

What divides the attached gingiva and alveolar mucosa?

Mucogingival line

95

What fiber is abundant in the alveolar mucosa?

Elastic fibers

96

What type of epithelium is found within the vermillion border?

Parakeratinized stratified squamous

97

Other than epithelial cells, what is the most abundant cell type found in the oral mucosa?

90% keratinocytes

98

What are three cell types (other than keratinocytes) found in the oral mucosa

Langerhans cells (found in stratum spinosum, involved in immune system)

Merely cells (sensory)

Melanocytes (pigmentation)

99

Specialized mucosa surface covers the _____ ___ ____ of the dorsal tongue

Anterior two thirds

100

What are the four types of papillae found on the tongue? What do they do?/where are they found?

Filiform - most abundant, no taste buds

Fungiform - found mostly at the tip of tongue

Foliate- posterior and sides of tongue - less prominent in adults

Circumvallate - junction of body and base of tonsillar area, quite large

101

What type of epithelium are found in filiform papillae?

Keratinized

102

What type of epithelium is found in fungiform papillae? Where are the taste buds located?

Non keratinized epithelium

Taste buds on upper surface

103

What type of epithelium is found on foliate papillae? Where are the taste buds located?

Non keratinized

Taste buds found on the sides of crypts

104

What type of epithelium is found in circumvallate papillae? Where are the taste buds located? What special glands are located here?

Keratinized epithelium

Taste buds located in crypts

Von Ebner's glands (serous salivary glands)

105

What type of cells are taste buds?

Chemoreceptive spindle cells

106

What are some things in saliva that help with protection?

Lactoferrin, lysozyme, defending, IGA

107

What type of saliva does the parotid gland secrete? Is it active or passive?

Serous saliva
Active salivation

Also secretes A amylase

108

Submandibular gland. Does it secrete passive or active saliva? Mucus or serous?

Passive saliva
Both mucus and serous
Secretes the most saliva

109

Which salivary gland secretes mostly mucous? And contributes the least amount of saliva?

Sublingual gland

110

What cells help push saliva out of glands?

Myoepithelial cells

111

Saliva first flows into ____ ducts and then into ____ ducts

1) intercalated
2) striated

112

What is the difference between intercalated ducts and striated ducts?

Intercalated ducts has simple cuboidal epithelium.
Striated ducts usually have simple columnar epithelium, secrete bicarbonate and absorb sodium and chloride

113

What duct is large and dumps into excretory ducts?

Interlobar ducts

114

The salpingopharyngeous muscle branches off of what muscle?

Palatopharyngeous

115

What nerve gives sensory innervation in the larynx above the vocal cords? Where does it enter?

Internal laryngeal nerve. Enters the thyrohyoid ligament