Quiz 2 (crainal bones) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 2 (crainal bones) Deck (79):
1

Cranial bones

Frontal bone
Parietal bones
Occipital bones
Temporal bones

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Structures of the Frontal bone

Supra-orbital foramen
Frontal sinuses
Anterior cranial fossa
Zygomatic process of the frontal bone

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Supra-orbital foramen: location, what passes through

Superior ridge of the ocular cavity
Supra-orbital nerve, sensory branch of the opthalmic nerve

4

Frontal sinuses

Deep to the frontal bone, superior to nasal bones

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Anterior cranial fossa

front 1/3 of cranial cavity

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Zygomatic process of the frontal bone

Lateral/inferior process of the frontal bone that joins with the zygomatic bone

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Location of frontal bone

Most anterior bone of the cranium, superior to facial bones

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Parietal bone(s) location

Posterior and lateral to frontal bone

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Structures of the parietal bone(s)

Sagittal suture
coronal suture
lambdoid suture (w/ wormian or sutural bones)
squamus suture

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sagittal suture

Joins the two parietal bones. Medially located on the superior surface of the cranium

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coronal suture

joins the two parietal bones to the frontal bone. Separates as if a frontal cross-section of the cranium

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lambdoid suture

joins the parietal and occipital bone(s) w/Wormian or sutural bones. Runs transverse across the posterior surface of the cranium.

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squamus suture

Joins the temporal and parietal bones
Located on the lateral surfaces of the cranium

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Location of the occipital bone

most posterior of the cranial bones

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Structures of the occipital bone

foramen magnum
occipital condyle
external occipital protuberance
superior and inferior nochal lines
posterior cranial fossa
condyloid (condylar) fossa
hypoglossal canals

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Foramen magnum: location, what passes through

inferior surface of the occipital bone, Largest opening.
Right/Left vertebral arteries
Spinal motor component of the accessory nerve (CN XI)
This is the landmark between the medulla oblongata and the spinal cord of the central nervous system.

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Occipital condyle

Large condyle on the exterior of the posterior portion of the occipital bone

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External occipital protuberance

Knot on the back of the head

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Superior/inferior nochal lines

2 rows of small ridges that move horizontally across the occipital bone. Located in close proximity to the external occipital protuberance

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Posterior cranial fossa

rear 1/3 of the inner cranial cavity

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condyloid (condylar) fossa

Depressions in the occipital bone posterior to the occipital condyles. Laterally located in relation to the foramen magnum.

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Hypoglossal canals: location, what passes through

Holes located superior to the occipital condyles
hypoglossal nerve (CNXII)

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Temporal bone(s) location

Lateral surface of the cranium. By the ears.

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Four regions of the temporal bone(s)

Squamus region
Tympanic region
mastoid region
petrous region

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Location of squamus region

superior portion of temporal bone(s)

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Location of the tymbanic region

Inferior to the squamus region of the temporal bone(s), includes external auditory canal

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Location of the mastoid region

Poster to external ear on the temporal bone(s)

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Location of the petrous region

Interior, inferior portion of the temporal bone(s)

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Zygomatic process of the temporal bone: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

squamus region
posterior half of the zygomatic arch (anterior temporal bone)

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Mandibular fossa: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Squamus region
Inferior depression to the zygomatic arch. Articulates of the condylar processes of the mandible

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External auditory canal: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

tympanic region
lateral surface of the skull. Hole located anterior to the mastoid process

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Styloid process: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

tympanic region
Sharp protrusion posterior to the external auditory canal

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Mastoid process: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Mastoid region
Large dull process posterior to external auditory canal

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Stylomastoid foramen: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Mastoid region
small opening posterior to the base of the styloid process
facial nerve (CN VII)

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Mastoid foramen: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Mastoid region
large opening posterior to the mastoid process (posterior edge of the temporal bone)
Mastoid emissary vein

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Carotid canal: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Petrous region
Anterior to jugular fossa
internal carotid artery

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Jugular foramen: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

in conjunction anteriorly with temporal bone, and posterialy with occipital bone
Large hole superior to hypoglossal canal
Glossopharyngeal (CN IX), Vagus (X) and the accessory nerves (CN XI, spinal motor component and cranial motor component) and the internal jugular vein passing through

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Middle cranial fossa

middle 1/3 of the cranial cavity

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internal auditory canal:region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Petrous region
Superior to jugular foramen
vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) and facial nerve (CN VII) ENTERING the skull

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Foramen lacerum: region, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

in conjunction anteriorly with sphenoid bone, and temporal bone, and posteriorly with the occipital bone
Large hole anterior and medial to carotid canal. Hole "looks" straight down through the skull from a superior view.
Functionally closed with fiborcartilage in living skull

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Location of sphenoid bone

Located in anterior/medial fossa(s)

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Greater wings: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Inferior/posterior of the two wings
found on the sphenoid bone

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Lesser wings: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Anterior/superior of the two wings
found on the sphenoid bone

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Sphenoidal sinuses

Medial-deep to the anterior surface of the sphenoid

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Structures of the Sella turcica, what does it stand for

saddle shaped
dorsum sellae
hypophysial fossa
tuberculum sellae

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Dorsum sellae: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Posterior medial ridge, back part of the saddle

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hypophysial fossa: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

anterior to dorsum sellae, houses the pituitary gland

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Tuberculum sellae: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

anterior ridge of the saddle, structure of the saddle closest to the lesser wings

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jugum sphenoidale: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

flat region anterior to the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

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Medial pterygoid plate: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

underside of sphenoid bone
lateral to vomer

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Lateral pterygoid plate: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

underside of sphenoid bone
Lateral to medial pterygoid plate

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Anterior clinoid process: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

extends posteriorly from each lesser wing of the sphenoid bone, medial tips of lesser wings

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posterior clinoid process: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

arises from the superior surface of each greater wing of the sphenoid

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Togetehr the clinoid processes do this

deepen the cella turcica (or hypophysial fossa) and serve as points of attachment for the tentorium cerebelli

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Optic canal: : location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Sphenoid bone
medial, superior to anterior clinoid process
optic nerve (CN II) and ophthalmic artery

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superior orbital fissure: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

sphenoid bone
directly below optic canal
oculormotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV) ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (CN V), and the abducens nerve (CN VI) passing through

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Foramen rotundum: : location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

sphenoid bone
small round opening below superior orbital fissure
maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve

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Foramen ovale: : location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

sphenoid bone
oval shaped opening in small section of greater wing
mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)

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Foramen spinosum: : location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

sphenoid bone
medial to mandibular fossa in the end of the small section of the greater wings
middle meningeal artery passing through

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Ethmoid bone location

anterior cranial fossa

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ethmoid bone structures

cribriform plate (w/olfactory foramina)
perpendicular plate
superior nasal conchae
middle nasal conchae
ethmoidal sinuses (air cells)
crista galli

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Cribriform plate: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

superior portion of ethmoid bone. full of small holes
olfactory nerve (CN I)

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Perpendicular plate: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Middle upper section of nasal septum of ethmoid bone

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Superior/middle nasal conchae: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Lateral sections of the nasal cavity
name is in respect to the lower nasal conchae

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Ethmoidal sinuses (air cells): location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Medial to ocular cavities

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Crista galli: location, description, if a foramen, what passes through.

Share projection from the superior portion of the cribriform plate

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Neonatal skull structures

Frontal (anterior fontanel)
Occipital (posterior fontanel)
Sphenoid (anterolateral fontanel)
mastoid (posterolateral fontanel)
Metopic suture (unpaired)

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Frontal fontanel

at the junction of the frontal and the parietal bones, along the midsagittal plane

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occipital fontanel

at the junction of the occipital and parietal bones, along the midsagittal plane

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sphenoid fontanel

anterolateral, at the junction of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and sphenoid bones

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Mastoid fontanel

posterolateral, at the junction of the parietal, occipital, and the temporal bones

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metopic suture

runs continuous with the sagittal suture, between the two halves of the frontal bone. This suture onle persists if the frontal bones do not fuse.

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Paired neonatal skull structures

sphenoid fontanel
mastoid fontanel

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unpaired neonatal skull structures

metopic suture
frontal fontanel
occipital fontanel

75

Cleft palate/lip

occurs when right and left halves of the palate fail to join medially. Leaves an opening between the mouth and nasal cavities that interferes with sucking (ability to nurse). Can also lead to inhalation of food.
Can be surgically repaired

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Craniostenosis

premature closure of one or more sutures, which can lead to distortions of the skull

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Rickets/osteomalacia

softening of the bones due to change in mineral composition. Rickets is when adults or children do not get enough vitamin d or calcium.

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Deviated nasal septum

nasal septum has a bend in it that prevents sinus drainage, and can cause difficulty breathing.

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Bone scan (method/result, and uses)

injected radiolabeled phosphate accumulates in bones, and radiation emitted is converted into an image
useful in diagnosis of metastatic bone cancer, also detects fractures, early infections, and some degenerative bone diseases.