Quiz 3 (Torso and girdles) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 3 (Torso and girdles) Deck (148):
1

Hyaline cartilage where is it found (3)

tracheal rings
costal cartilages of the ribs
covers bone surfaces at synovial joints

2

Brief description of hyaline cartilage (3points)

matrix of closely packed collagen fibers not easily seen under the light microscope.
Clear, glassy appearance
tough but flexible

3

Fibrocartilage where is it found (3)

intervertebral discs
menisci of the knee joint
symphysis pubis

4

Brief description of fibrocartilage (2)

matrix is supported by collagenous fibers which are densely packed and regularly arranged.
very tough and durable
messier looking that hyaline cartilage under the microscope.

5

pl. of vertebra

vertebrae

6

vertebra

bone that houses and protects part of the spinal cord

7

intervertebral foramina

gaps between the pedicles of the successive vertebrae which permit the passage of nerves to or from the enclosed spinal cord

8

intervertebral discs

fibrocartilage that separates and cushions the vertebrae

9

Sacrum

fusion of five sacral vertebrae
superior to the coccyx

10

coccyx

3-5 fused coccygeal vertebrae
inferior to sacrum

11

Primary curvatures def.

born with these, also known as accommodation curvatures

12

2 primary curvatures

thoracic and pelvic(sacral) curvature

13

thoracic curvature

posterior curvature of the thoracic vertebrae

14

pelvic (sacral) curvature

posterior curvature of the sacrum

15

seconday curvatures def.

develop as you learn to hold your head up and walk

16

cervical curvature

anterior curvature of the cervical vertebrae

17

lumbar curvature

anterior curvature of the lumbar vertebrae

18

2 secondary curvatures

cervical and lumbar curvatures

19

Structures of all the vertebrae

body (centrum)
vertebral foramen
spinous process
transverse processes
vertebral arch
superior articular processes
inferior articular processes

20

another name for the body of the vertebra

centrum

21

Body

thick, large anterior section

22

vertebral foramen

area which the spinal cord passes through
posterior to the body

23

spinous process

most posterior of the processes
generally midline
can often see under the skin of the back

24

transverse processes

processes on the lateral sides of the vertebra

25

vertebral arch (2)

pedicles (anterior)
laminae (posterior)

26

pedicles (of the vertebral arch)

arise along the posterolateral margins of the body

27

laminae (of the vertebral arch)

on either side exten dorsomedially to form the roof of the vertebral arch

28

superior articular processes

project cranially from the posterior surface of the vertebra

29

superior articular facet

polished surface on posterior of superior articular process

30

inferior articular processes

project dorsally from the posterior surface of the vertebra

31

inferior articular facet

polished surface on the anterior surface of the inferior articular processes

32

Atlas/axis articulation allows this

to turn head side to side

33

The joint between the atlas and axis does not have this

intervertebral disk

34

Cervical vertebrae sturcturs

transverse foramina
bifid spinous process (C2-C6)

35

transverse foramina and what vertebra are the found

holse in the transverse processes
c1-c7

36

costal process

originate near the ventrolateral portion of the vertebral body

37

How many cervical vertebra

7

38

bifid spinous process and what vertebra are they found

c2-c6
spinous process split into two at the end

39

atlas, which vertebra number

c1

40

atlas what does it articulate with

occipital condyles

41

atlas, what makes it special (2)

lacks a body
large vertebral foramen

42

axis, which number

c2

43

axis, what makes it special

presence of dens (odontoid process)

44

odontoid process (and other name)

dens
bony process that is the remnant of the fused body of the atlas

45

name of C7

vertebral prominens

46

what makes the vertebral prominens special

long slender spinous process that ends in a broad tubercle

47

How man thoracic vertebra

12

48

Thoracic vertebra (T1-T12)

reps attach
inferior pointed spinous process (giraffe)

49

Special structures of the thoracic vertebra

transverse costal facets
demifacets (superior and inferior) (costal facets)

50

transverse costal facets

smooth surfaces on the anterior surface of the transverse process
articulates with tubercle of the rib

51

demifacets

ruff patchs on the lateral, posterior body of the vertebrae
Articulates of the head of the rib

52

Number of lumbar vertebrae

5

53

Special features of the lumbar vertebrae

large, thick body
caudally pointing spinous process (moose)

54

Sacrum number of fused vertebra

5

55

auricular surfaces (sacrum)

articulates with the pelvic girdle at the sacroilliac joint

56

sacral promontory

prominent bulge at the anterior tip of the base (superoanterior surface)

57

superior articular processes

form synovial articulations with the last lumbar vertebra

58

superior articular facets

polished portion of the superior articular processes

59

sacral canal

inside the median sacral crest

60

venral/dorsal sacral foramina

holes in the sacrum can be seen through from the front or back

61

median sacral crest

ridge that runs down the middle of the sacrum posteriorly

62

lateral sacral crests

ridges (paired) running down the outside edges of the sacrum

63

sacral hiatus

end of the sacral canal
opening at the bottom of the sacrum

64

number of coccyx bones

Co1-Co4

65

Where is the coccyx located

most inferior portion of the vertebral column

66

coccygeal cornua (Co1)

medial horns on the superior surface of the coccyx

67

Easy way to ID rib top and bottom

superior surface is smooth, inferior surface is ruff/pointed
structures point posteriorly

68

Types of ribs 2

true ribs
false ribs

69

true ribs

first 7 rib pairs
connect to the sternum with costal cartilage

70

false ribs

8-10
fuse before reaching the sternum with costal cartilage

71

structures of the rib

head (capitulum)
neck
tubercle (tuberculum)

72

Another name for the head of the rib

capitulum

73

head of the rib

articulates of the body of the thoracic vertebra

74

neck of the rib

area between the head and the tubercle

75

tubercle another name for

tuberculum

76

tubercle of the rib

projects dorsally, inferior portion articulates with transverse process of the thoracic vertabra

77

Special example of false ribs, whats different

floating ribs, last 2 ribs that do not connect to the sternum

78

costal carilages

cartilage that connects the ribs to the sternum

79

Three parts of the sternum

manubrium
body
xiphoid process

80

sternum

medially located in upper thorax consisting of 3 structures

81

manubrium

superior portion of the sternum, articulates of clavicals and costal cartilage of the first rib pair

82

body

attaches to inferior surface of manubrium
2-7 attach with costal cartilage
8-10 also attach with the costal cartilage of 7

83

xiphoid process

most inferior part of the sternum
diaphragm and rectus abdominis attach

84

Two types of anatomical girdles

complete
pectoral

85

complete girdle

belt of bone
stability over range of motion

86

pectoral girdle

imcomplete girdle
only connected to the clavicle by the sternum
muscle attachment everywhere else
range of motion better, less stability

87

Bones of the pectoral girdle

clavicle
scapula

88

Structures of the clavicle

superior surface
inferior surface
sternal (medial) end
acromial end (lateral)
conoid tubercle
costal tuberosity

89

Clavicle: superior surface vs inferior surface

superior surface is smooth
inferior surface has rough patchs and tuberocities

90

anatomical names for ends of clavicle

sternal end
acromial end

91

directional names for ends of clavicle

medial end
lateral end

92

conoid tubercle

points inferior on acromial end of clavicle
Little past halfway between the acromial and sternal ends

93

costal tuberosity

smaller than conoid tubercle
sternal end
points inferiorly

94

Medial (vertebral) border (scapula)

lateral to the vertebral column
longest boarder

95

lateral (axillary) boarder (scapula)

lower lateral boarder
inferior to the glenoid cavity

96

scapular spine

large spine on posterior of scapula

97

acromion

large process at the lateral end of the scapular spine
articulates with the clavicle

98

coracoid process (scapula)

anterior hook shaped process

99

glenoid cavity (fossa)

articulation point with head of humerus

100

supraglenoid tubercle

bump at superior ridge of glenoid cavity

101

infraglenoid tubercle

projection inferior to glenoid cavity

102

supraspinous fossa

depression superior to the scapular spine

103

infraspinous fossa

depression inferior to the scapular spine

104

subscapular fossa

depression on anterior surface of the scapula
(proximal side to ribs)

105

Name for the pelvic girdle

Os Coxa bone

106

Three bones(regions) of the Os Coxa

illium (region)
ishium (region)
pubis (region)

107

acetabulum

large depression, articulates with femer

108

obturator foramen

largest foramen in the body

109

true pelvis

lower pelvis (fully enclose belt of bone)

110

false pelvis

upper pelvis (only protected on three sides, front is open)

111

pelvic brim

Superior view, it is the plan around the pelvic inlet

112

pelvic inlet

superior view, it is the large hole down the middle of the pelvic girdle

113

Ilium

Large superior portion of the Os Coxa bone

114

Iliac crest

superior ridge of the ilium

115

auricular surface + other name

sacroiliac joint
point of articulation with sacrum

116

Anterior superior iliac spine

The spine that projects medially from the anterior end of the iliac crest

117

anterior inferior iliac spine

spine that projects anteriomedially, which is inferior to the anterior superior iliac spine

118

posterior superior iliac spine

spine that projects caudally from the posterior end of the illiac crest

119

posterior inferior iliac spine

small spine that projects caudally from the posterior lower edge of the sacroiliac joint

120

greater sciatic notch

large notch inferior to the sacroiliac joint

121

posterior gluteal line

ridge on the lateral surface of the iliac crest

122

anterior gluteal line

ridge on the lateral surface of the ilium region.
lower edge of the ridge begins at the sciatic arch, and curves up towards the anterior portion of the iliac crest

123

inferior gluteal line

ridge on the lateral surface of the ilium region.
most inferior ridge that begins near the sciatic notch, and moves superiorly to the acetabulum. Ending near the anterior inferior iliac spine

124

Structures of the ischium region

lesser sciatic notch
ischial tuberosity
ischial spine

125

location of ischium region

posterior half of the lower area of the Os Coxa
makes up the "butt bones"

126

lesser sciatic notch

notch inferior to the greater sciatic notch

127

ischial tuberosity

infraposterior edge of the ischium

128

ischial spine

spine that separates the greater and lesser sciatic notchs

129

Structures of the pubis region

pubic symphysis
pubic arch

130

location of pubis region

infra-anterior portion of the Os Coxa

131

pubic symphysis

fibrocartilage joining the two pubis

132

pubic arch

pubic angle created at the pubic symphysis

133

Difference between male and female Os Coxa

Pubic angle of men is 100 degrees

134

Spina bifida

most common neural tube defect
abnormal spinal cord development such that adjacent verteral arches do not form

135

osteopenia

inadequate ossification, naturally occurs as we age
begins between ages 30-40

136

osteoporosis

reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function

137

scoliosis

lateral curvature of the spine

138

kyphosis

exaggerated thoracic curvature
caused by osteoporosis, chronic contraction of muscles, abnormal vertebral growth

139

lordosis

sway-back
anterior exaggeration of the lumbar curve
caused by abdominal wall obesity/weakness

140

Herniated vs slipped disc

slipped disc is a distortion in the disk material that partially forces it into the vertebral canal. C5-C6, L4-L5, L5-S1
Herniated disk is a severly distorted disk material which breaks through and enters the vertebral canal

141

laminectomy

Fusion of two vertebrae which may require the removal of the nearest vertebral arch by shaving away the laminae

142

osteomylitis

painful and destructive bone infection generally caused by bacteria

143

Gigantism

occurs if hypersecretion of growth hormone before puberty

144

acromegaly

overproduction of growth hormone after the epiphyseal plates of fused. results in bone shape change and cartilaginous areas of skeleton to enlarge (521)

145

Pituitary dwarfism

inadequate production of growth hormone before puberty.
Normal proportions.

146

achondroplastic dwarfism

result of abnormal epiphyseal activity (slow growth)
Sexual and mental development are unaffected. Short arms and legs, trunk is normal size.
Abnormal gene on chromosome 4 affects a fibroblast growth factor.
Two recessive genes leads to sever abnormalities and early death

147

neck hyper flexion

look in book at school

148

spondylolysis

look in book at school