Quiz 7 (CNS + PNS) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 7 (CNS + PNS) Deck (163):
1

3 functions of CSF

mechanical protection
chemical protection (blood brain barrier)
circulation (provided nutrients to brain)

2

CSF

cerebral spinal fluid

3

Pathway of CSF

produced by choroid plexus (in all four ventricles)
lateral ventricles
intervertricular foramen
third ventricle
cerebral aquaduct
fourth ventricle
median and lateral apertures
subarachnoid space
arachnoid vili
dural sinuses
internal jugular vein

4

The prosencephalon composes these two structures at a 6 week embryo

telencephalon
diencephalon

5

Lobes of the cerebrum

frontal
parietal
temporal
occipital
insula

6

Frontal lobe contains this structure

precentral gyrus

7

parietal lobe contains this strucutre

postcentral gyrus

8

temporal lobe has these 2 structures

auditory and olfactory cortex

9

occipital lobe contains this structure

visual cortex

10

Location of insula

deep to the lateral sulcus

11

the insula contains this structure

gustatory cortex

12

Layers of the meninges from superficial to deep

periosteal layer (dura mater)
meningeal layer (dura mater)
arachnoid mater
sub-arachnoid space
pia mater

13

meninges

protective area that encloses the brain and spinal cord

14

dura mater

two seperate layers
leathery material

15

pia mater

thin layer of tissue that clings tightly to the brain

16

arachnoid villi

aka arachnoid granulations
projections of the arachnoid mater through the meningeal layer of the dura mater into the dural sinus where CSF is absorbed into venous blood

17

dural sinuses are

veins of the brain open into the sinuses which in turn deliver blood to the internal juggular vein.

18

dural sinuses contain these

intersitial fluid
blood vessels

19

Names and pathway of the dural sinuses

look up in book

20

Falx cerebri

meningeal layer of the dura mater that follows the longitudinal fissure and separates the right and left hemispheres of the brain.

21

Tentorium cerebelli

meningeal layer of the dura mater that follows the transverse fissure and separates the cerebrum from the cerebellum

22

Falx cerebelli

meningeal layer of the dura mater that separates the two halves of the cerebellum

23

The prosencephalon becomes these two brain regions at birth

cerebrum
diencephalon

24

telencephalon is this region at birth

cerebrum

25

diencephalon is this region at birth

diencephalon

26

primary brain vesicle mesencephalon makes up this 6 week embryo brain structure, and this region at birth

diencephalon

27

Rhombencephalon makes up this two brain vesicles at 6 week embryo

metencephalon
myelencephalon

28

metencephalon is this region at birth

cerebellum and pons

29

myelencephalon is this region at birth

medula oblongata

30

This means 'little brain' in latin

cerebellum

31

largest part of the brain

cerebrum

32

conscious thought occurs here

cerebral hemispheres of the cerebrum

33

cerebral hemispheres

two half's of the cerebrum that are separated by the longitudinal fissure

34

corpus callosum

prominent comissural bundles linking the cerebral hemispheres

35

septum pellucidum

thin, medial portion membrane that separates the pair of lateral ventricles

36

cerebral cortex

an extensive area of neural cortex covering the cerebral hemispheres

37

lateral sulcus

marks inferior boarder of the frontal lobe

38

central sulcus

deep groove that extends laterally from the longitudinal fissure

39

longitudinal fissure

deep fissure that seperates the cerebrum into hemispheres

40

transverse fissure

deep fissure that seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellar hemispheres

41

Diencephalon contains these major structures

epithalamus
thalamus
hypothalamus

42

sturucture of the epithalamus

pineal gland (body)

43

epithalamus

roof of the thrid ventricle

44

pineal gland (body)

posterior portion of epithalamus, secretes hormone melatonin

45

thalamus

contains most of the neural tissue in the diencephalon, forms walls that surround the third ventricle
final relay point for ascending sensory info

46

hypothalamus

forms the floor of the third ventricle,
extends from optic chiasma to mammillary bodies

47

4 structures of the hypothalamus

optic chiasma
mammillary bodies
pituitary gland
infundibulum

48

optic chiasma

location where the optic tracts from the eyes cross over and arrive at the brain

49

mammillary bodies

control feeding reflexes (licking, swallowing, ect)

50

pituitary gland

controls the release of many hormones,
posterior is neural tissue,
anterior is epithelial tissue

51

infundibulum

extends inferiorly connecting the hypothalamus to the pituitary

52

telencephalon and diencephalon: other names

forebrain
prosencephalon

53

mesencephalon: other name

midbrain

54

mesencephalon structures

cerebral aqueduct (mesencephalic aqueduct)
tectum (corpora quadrigemina)

55

cerebral aqueduct other name

mesencephalic aqueduct

56

cerebral aqueduct

passage between the third and fourth ventricles

57

tectum other name

corpora quadrigemina

58

additonal structures of the tectum

superior (x2) and inferior (x2) colliculi

59

superior colliculi

integrate visual information with other sensory input,
initiate reflex responses to visual stimuli

60

inferior colliculi

relay auditory information to medial geniculate nuclei
initiate refles responses to auditory stimuli

61

describe the superior and inferior colliculi

4 small bumps on the posterior portion of the midbrain

62

Two other names for metencephalon

hindbrain
rhombencephalon

63

two other names for myelencephalon

hindbrain
rhombencephalon

64

2 major structures of the metencephalon

pons
cerebellum

65

pons functions

relays sensory information to cerebellum and thalamus
suconscious somatic and visceral motor centers

66

pons location

anterior to cerebellum in the brain stem

67

cerebellum functions

coordinates complex somatic motor patterns
adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord

68

Vermis

along the midline of the cerebellum, a band of cortex that seperates the cerebellar hemispheres

69

cerebellar cortex

gray mater of the cerebellum

70

arbor vitae

white mater of the cerebellum, looks like tree branches

71

cerebellar peduncles

tracts that link the cerebellum with the brain stem, cerebrum, and spinal cord leave the cerebellar hemispheres as the superior, middle, and inferior peduncles

72

myelencephalon structure

medulla oblongata

73

medulla oblongata

where spinal cord connects to the brainstem

74

brain stem

midbrain + pons + medulla oblongata

75

Body of lateral ventricle is here

parietal lobe

76

anterior horn of the lateral ventricle is here

extending into the frontal lobe

77

posterior horn of the lateral ventricle is here

projects into the occipital lobe

78

inferior horn of the lateral ventricle is here

curves laterally within the temporal lobe

79

interventricular foramen

passage that links the lateral ventricles with the third ventricle

80

third ventricle

cavity within the diencephalon

81

fourth ventricle

begins between the pons and cerebellum, narrows and becomes continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord

82

choroid plexus

produces CSF by "filtering" blood as it passes from the capillaries into the ventricles of the brain

83

choroid plexus is located here

in all of the ventricles of the brain

84

CN 1

olfactory

85

CN 2

Optic

86

CN 3

Oculomotor

87

CN 4

Trochlear

88

CN 5

Trigeminal

89

three branches of the trigeminal nerve

ophthalmic
maxillary
mandibular

90

CN 6

Abducens

91

CN 7

Facial

92

CN 8

vestibulocochlear

93

CN 9

glossopharyngeal

94

CN 10

Vagus

95

CN 11

Accessory

96

CN 12

Hypoglossal

97

Innervation: olfactory 1

nasal cavity/smell

98

Innervation: optic 2

eye/vision

99

Innervation: oculomotor 3

extrinsic muscles of eye

100

Innervation: throchlear 4

superior oblique muscles of eye

101

Innervation: trigeminal (ophthalmic) 5

skin of eyelids, scalp, nose, and lacrimal gland

102

Innervation: trigeminal (maxillary) 5

upper teeth, palate, skin of cheek, upper lip

103

Innervation: trigeminal (mandibular) 5

tongue, lower teeth, skin of jaw and temporal region

104

Innervation: abducens 6

lateral rectus muscle

105

Innervation: facial 7

taste buds of tongue, stimulates glands and skeletal muscle of face

106

Innervation: vestibulocochlear (vestibular branch) 8

equilibrium

107

Innervation: vestibulocochlear (cochlear branch) 8

hearing

108

Innervation: glossopharyngeal 9

pharyngeal muscles, parotid gland
posterior tongue, pharynx and carotid sinus

109

Innervation: vagus 10

pharyngeal and laryngeal muslces, heart, lungs, and abdominal viscera

110

Innervation: accessory 11

trapezius and sternocleidomastoid, pharynx, larynx, and soft palate

111

Innervation: hypoglossal 12

extrinsic and intrinsic muscles of tongue

112

Nerve(s) that passes through: cribriform plate

olfactory 1

113

Nerve(s) that passes through: optic canal

optic 2

114

Nerve(s) that passes through: superior orbital fissure

oculomotor 3
trochlear 4
opthalmic (trigeminal) 5
abducens 6

115

Nerve(s) that passes through: foramen rotundum

maxiallary (trigeminal) 5

116

Nerve(s) that passes through: foramen ovale

mandibular (trigeminal) 5

117

Nerve(s) that passes through: Enters internal acoustic meatus

facial 7
vestibulocochlear 8

118

Nerve(s) that passes through: exits stylomastoid foramen

facial 7

119

Nerve(s) that passes through: jugular foramen

glossopharyngeal 9
vagus 10
accessory 11

120

Nerve(s) that passes through: hypoglossal canal

hypoglossal 12

121

pathway of the spinal component of the accessory nerve

enters via foramen magnum
exits via jugular foramen

122

pathway of the cranial component of the accessory nerve

exits via jugular foramen

123

Review the M

OKay

124

Cervical plexus consists of these spinal nerves

C1-C4 with parts of C5

125

Cervial plexus supplies these

skin, muscles of the head, neck and the upper part of the shoulder

126

These contribute to the phrenic nerve

C3-5

127

Phrenic nerve innervates this

diaphragm

128

brachial plexus consists of this

anterior branches of spinal nerves C5-C8 and T1

129

The major nerves emergin from the brachial plexus are

musculocutaneous
medial
ulnar
radial
axillary

130

Musclulocutaneous innervates

coracobrachialis
biceps brachii
brachialis

131

median nerve innervates

flexor pollicis longus
flexor digitorum superficialis
lateral half of flexor digitorum profundus
palmaris longus
pronator teres and quadratus

132

ulnar nerve innervates

extensor carpi ulnaris
medial part of flexor digitorum profundus

133

Radial nerve innervates

triceps bracii
anconeous
bracioradialis
supinator
extensors of the forearm less the extensor carpii ulnaris

134

axillary nerve innervates

deltoid
teres minor

135

lumbar plexus consists of

T12-L4

136

Nerves of the lumbar plexus

obturator
femoral (adductor hiatus)

137

obturator nerve innervates

gracilis
adductor longus/magnus

138

Femoral nerve innervates

sartorius
4 muscles of the quadraceps

139

sacral plexus consists of

sacral, and coccygeal spinal nerves

140

Sacral plexus nerves

sciatic

141

sciatic nerve splits and becomes

tibial
common peroneal (fibular)

142

common peroneal (fibular) splits and beocmes

superficial peroneal (fibular)
deep peroneal (fibular)

143

sciatic nerve innervates

hamstrings

144

tibial nerve innervates

popliteous
plantaris
tibialis posterior
flexor digitorum longus
flexor hallucis longus

145

superficial peroneal nerve innervates

peroneus longus/brevis

146

deep peroneal nerve innervates

tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis longus
extensor digitorm longus
peroneous tertius

147

Lateral cord forms all or part of these two nerves

musculocutaneous
median

148

Medial cord forms all or part of these two nerves

median
ulnar

149

posterior cord forms all or part of these two nerves

axilary
radial

150

olfactory function

sensory

151

optic function

sensory

152

oculomotor

motor

153

trochlear

motor

154

trigeminal functional (all but muscles of mastication)

sensory

155

trigeminal functional (muscles of mastication)

motor

156

trigeminal function as a whole

both (sensory/motor)

157

abducens function

motor

158

facial function

both (sensory/motor)

159

vestibulocochlear function

sensory

160

glossopharyngeal function

both (sensory/motor0

161

vagus function

both (sensory/motor)

162

accessory function

motor

163

hypoglossal function

motor