Quiz 4 (Appendicular skeleton, joints) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Quiz 4 (Appendicular skeleton, joints) Deck (137):
1

Humerus

Proximal upper limb bone

2

Head (humerus)

medial
articulates with glenoid fossa

3

greater tubercle

Superior projecting tubercle
lateral to head of humerus

4

less tubercle

smaller tubercle lateral to head on anterior surface of humerus

5

intertubercular groove

groove on anterior surface between the greater/lesser tubercle of humerus

6

surgical neck

Base of the head of the humerus
narrowing
the actual line on the model around the base of the head of the humerus

7

deltoid tuberosity

small ridge on anterior surface
1/2 down length of humerus

8

capitulum

smooth lateral head on distal anterior surface of the humerus. lateral to the trochlea. 1/2 of the condyle

9

trochlea

medial 1/2 of the condyle, medial to capitulum
smooth (v grove down middle) anterior distal surface
sharper than capitulum
wraps anteriorly and posteriorly

10

medial epicondyle

large process projecting medially from the distal end. medial to the condyle

11

lateral epicondyle

small process projecting laterally from the distal end of the humerus.
lateral to the condyle

12

coronoid fossa

depression on distal anterior surface of the humerus
immediately proximal to condyle
larger of the two anterior fossa

13

olecranon fossa

Large depression on distal posterior surface of the humerus
cradles the olecranon process

14

radial fossa

smaller of the two anterior distal fossa of the humerus
lateral to the coronoid fossa

15

Radius

Lateral bone of antebrachium
larger end is distal

16

Head (radius)

proximal, smaller
articulates with ulna

17

radial tuberosity

anterior, proximal end of radius
points medially

18

styloid process

lateral distal surface of radius
sharp point

19

ulnar notch

notch on medial surface of distal end of radius
opposite of styloid process

20

Ulna

Hook on proximal end
medial bone of the antebrachium

21

trochlear notch

anterior
big scoop

22

olecranon process

most proximal structure of the ulna forming the proximal half of the trochlear notch. fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus

23

coronoid process

sharp process at the distal end of the trochlear notch
makes up half of the trochlear notch of the ulna
fits into coronoid fossa of the humerus

24

ulnar tuberosity

small ridge of bone originating from the coronoid process, moving distally
anterior proximal surface of ulna

25

styloid process

on distal end of ulna medial and posterior
small spike

26

Head (ulna)

distal end of the ulna

27

radial notch

articulates with radial head
proximal, medial/inferior edge of the trochlear notch

28

Carpal bones of the hand: Stop letting those people touch the cadavers hand (lateral to medial, proximal to distal)

scaphoid (navicular)
lunate
triquetrum (triangular)
pisiform
trapezium
trapezoid
capitate
hamate

29

Metacarpal bones

labeled 1-5 starting at the pollex (thumb)

30

Carpal bones are the bones of this region

wrist

31

metacarpal bones are the bones of this region

palm

32

phalanges how many

14

33

phalanges are the bones of this region

fingers/thumb

34

proximal phalanx

first digit of finger/thumb

35

middle phalanx

second digit of finger

36

distal phalanx

last digit of finger/thumb

37

another name for thumb

pollex

38

phalanges of the thumb

proximal
distal

39

Wording for quiz answers on metacarpals

# metacarpal of the R/L hand

40

Wording for quiz answers on phalanges

P/M/D phalanx of the # digit of the R/L hand

41

Determining r/l hand

look for pisiform and thumb.
Pisiform is on the anterior surface (palm) side of hand

42

Femur

proximal bone of lower limb

43

Head (femur)

articulates with acetabulum

44

Fovea capitis (fovea)

depression in head of femur
serves for ligament attachment

45

neck (femur)

narrowing after head

46

greater trochanter

proximal posterior
large projection on femur

47

lesser trochanter

proximal posterior
projection just distal to the neck of the femur

48

intertrochanteric crest

Ridge that connects the greater/lesser trochanter of the femur

49

pectineal line

small ridge moving distal from base of lesser trochanter of the femur

50

linea aspera

projected line on posterior surface
runs the whole vertical length of the femur

51

lateral condyle (femur)

large smooth
articulates with tibia
lateral distal surface of the femur

52

medial condyle (femur)

large smooth
articulates with tibia
medial distal surface of the femur

53

lateral epicondyle (femur)

bump superior to the lateral condyle on the lateral surface of the femur

54

medial epicondyle (femur)

bumb superior to the medial condyle on the medial surface of the femur

55

patellar surface

anterior distal smooth area between the two condyles of the femur

56

patella

sesamoid bone
forms within a tendon
knee cap

57

base (patella)

superior surface, broader

58

apex (patella)

inferior surface, dull point

59

articular facets (lateral and medial) of the patella

posterior side
lateral articular facet is larger
lateral will be level on the table if siting on posterior side

60

Tibia

medial of the two bones of the lower half of the lower limb

61

medial condyle (tibia)

medial, superior articulating surface with the medial condyle of the femur

62

lateral condyle (tibia)

lateral, superior articulating surface with the lateral condyle of the femur

63

tibial tuberosity

bump on proximal, anterior surface of tibia
lower attachment of the tendon housing the patella

64

anterior crest (margin) (tibia)

most anterior surface of the tibia
ridge running down the front of the bone

65

medial malleolus

most distal, medially located structure of the tibia

66

Fibula (can pick up in quiz)

Lateral to tibia
Sharp ridge is on anterior
lateral side is smooth
medial side is ruff

67

head (fibula)

proximal end
Flatter of the two ends

68

lateral malleolus

Distal end
pointier of the two ends of the fibula

69

Tarsal bones (7)

talus
calcaneus
navicular
cuboid
lateral/intermediate/medial cuneiform

70

talus

most superior
articulates with tibia

71

calcaneus

heal bone
largest bone of foot

72

navicular

medial to cuboid
larger than cuneiform bones

73

cuboid

lateral to navicular
larger than cuneiform bones

74

lateral (3rd) cuneiform

adjacent to cuboid
inline with middle toe

75

intermediate (2nd) cuneiform

inline with second metatarsal

76

medial (1st) cuneiform

inline with hallux

77

another name for big toe

hallux

78

Metatarsal bones

5
counted from big to little toe

79

Phalanges of the foot

same as hand

80

TARSALS

the circus needs more interesting little clowns

81

hip fracture

head/neck, trochanter regions of femur, not acetabulum
elderly more likely due to osteoporosis
repair by inserting screws and pins or hip replacement
on the rise due to increase lifespan

82

Green stick fracture

one side of bone breaks, other side bends
happens in children due to not fully osefied bones

83

SAD

synarthrosis- no movement
amphiarthrosis- little movement
diarthrosis- free movement

84

6 types of joints

plane joints
hinge joint
pivot joint
condylar / ellipsoidal joint
saddle joint
ball and socket joint

85

shoulder joint

glenohumeral joint

86

glenohumeral ligaments

composed of three thickenings of the articular capsule over the anterior surface of the joint

87

transverse humeral ligament

narrow sheet extending from the greater tubercle in the lesser tubercle of the humerus.
overlies the tendon of the biceps brachii

88

coracohumeral ligament

extends from the coracoid process to the head of the humerus
anterior/ superior surface

89

coracoacromial ligament

supports the superior surface of the capsule
spanning from the coracoid process to the acromion

90

acromioclavicular ligament

binds the acromion to the clavicle
restricts clavicular movement at the acromial end

91

two structures of the coracoclavicular ligament

conoid ligament-medial
trapezoid ligament-lateral

92

coracoclavicular ligament

connects the clavicle to the coracoid process of the scapula
helps to limit the relative motion between the clavicle and scapula

93

glenoidal labrum

narrow rim/lip of fibrocartilage around the edge of the glenoid cavity/fossa

94

boxers fracture

fracture of the 5th metatarsal

95

bankhart lesion

tear in labrum of shoulder
occurs with dislocation
treat by immobilization, surgery, or PT to inprove range of motion and muscle contraction

96

Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

young adolesence, fracture at epiphysis due to weakness
can occur suddenly or over time
more common in males who are overweight for height
may lead to one leg looking shorter or turned out
treat with surgery

97

elbow joint

humeroulnar or olecranal joint

98

ulnar collateral ligament

attaches to medial surface of ulna near trochleah and medial epicondyle of humerus

99

radial collateral ligament

attaches to lateral epicondyle of humerus and annular ligament binding the head of the radius

100

annular ligament

binds the proximal radial head to the radial notch of the ulna

101

knee joint

tibiofemoral joint

102

patellar ligament

inferior to patella, attaches to patella and tibial tuberosity

103

fibular (lateral) collateral ligament

fibula to femur reinforces lateral surface

104

tibial (medial) collateral ligament

tibia to femur, reinforces medial surface

105

medial meniscus

C shaped
made of fibrocartilage

106

lateral meniscus

O shaped
made of fibrocartilage

107

4 functions of the menisci

cushion
conform to the shape of the articulating surfaces as the femur changes position
increase the surface area of the tibiofemoral joint
provide some lateral stability to the joint

108

anterior cruciate ligament

attaches to anterior of tibia and (middle) medial anterior femur

109

posterior cruciate ligament

attaches to posterior of tibia and (middle) medial anterior femur

110

What do the cruciate ligaments of the knee do

limit anterior and posterior movement of the tibia

111

hip joint

coxal joint

112

Why is the coxal joint the most stable

deep socket encloses nearly whole head of femur
large amount of force placed on the joint

113

inside the knee joint capsule

medial meniscus
lateral meniscus
anterior cruciate ligament
posterior cruciate ligament

114

inside the coxal joint capsule

ligamentum teres
transverse acetabular ligament
acetabular labrum

115

acetabular labrum

increases the depth of acetabulum
made of fibro cartilage

116

iliofemoral ligament

attaches to ilium and interochanteric line of the femur

117

pubofemoral ligament

attaches to ischium and lateral to head of femur

118

ischiofemoral ligament

attaches to ischium and lateral to head of femur

119

transverse acetabular ligament

completes inferior boarder of acetabular fossa
crosses acetabular notch

120

ligamentum teres

attaches to fovea and inferior boarder of acetabulum

121

acromioclavicular joint

clavicle, sternum

122

sternoclavicular joint

sternum
clavicle

123

Luxation

dislocation of joint

124

subluxation

partial dislocation of joint

125

arthroscopic surgery

minimally invasive
3 small incisions
1 for camera
1 for fluid to be injected
1 for surgical instrument
repairs bone fragments, scar tissue, damaged/torn cartilage or ligaments

126

bursitis

inflammation of the bursa

127

arthritis

damage to articular cartilage

128

rheumatoid arthritis

auto-immune disease damage to articular cartilage

129

osteoarthritis

due to age damage to articular cartilage

130

flat fee

loss or absence of longitudinal arch of the foot

131

congenital talipes equinovarus

club foot
congenital deformity of one or both feet
secondary developemnt to abnormalities of neuromuscular development

132

sprains

stretching ligament to point where some collagenous fibers are broken

133

menisectomy

surgical removal of an injured meniscus

134

shoulder separation

complete or partial dislocation of acromioclavicular joint

135

colles' fracture

break in the distal portion of radius
typical of reaching out to catch ones self in a fall

136

pott's fracture

occurs at ankle
affects both bones of the leg

137

comminuted fracture

shattering fracture