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Flashcards in Quiz 3 Deck (115)
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1

Dementia is characterized by acquired, persistent impairment of multiple cognitive domains that significantly alters _______, social interaction, occupational function, and the ability to perform ______ activities of daily living.

communication; instrumental

2

What is the preclinical condition that may suggest a person is at risk for developing dementia?

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

3

Mild cognitive impairment is a ______ stage or condition of intermediate symptoms b/w the cognitive changes associated with healthy aging and the salient cognitive impairments seen in Alzheimer's disease or other dementias.

transition

4

What are the two types of mild cognitive impairment?

Amnestic MCI
Non-amnestic MCI

5

What type of MCI affects memory only?

amnestic

6

Other cognitive functions are initially affected (e.g., language or executive function) is what type of MCI?

non-amnestic

7

What is the diagnostic criteria for MCI?

1. Self-report of memory problems
2. measurable memory impairment on standardized test
3. No impairments in reasoning, general thinking skills, or ability to perform activities of daily living.

8

List the 4 types of dementia.

Alzheimer's Disease
Vascular Dementia
Dementia with Lewy Bodies
Frontotemporal Dementia

9

Episodic memory deficits
Working memory deficits
Attention and executive function impairments
language and communication impairments

Are all the earliest symptoms of what type of dementia?

Alzheimer's disease (AD)

10

List some modifiable risk factors of AD

diet, exercise, controlled cardiovascular risk

11

List some NON-modifiable risk factors of AD

older age, positive family history, carrier status for the e4 allele of APOE gene

12

What language and communication aspects are affected earliest in AD?

lexical retrieval
discourse

13

What abilities are spared in early dementia?

Orientation to self and to other persons
Semantic memory
Ability to produce fluent sentences
Engage in conversation
Frequently follow 2-step to 3-step commands

14

These are all abilities in what stage of AD?
ability to follow 1-2 step commands
can sustain attention for some time
can make relevant on topic statements or comments about tangible stimuli during conversation

middle-stage

15

What abilities are present in later-stage AD?

attend to pleasant stimuli (e.g., music, sensory stimulation) for brief periods of time

16

Vascular dementia is most commonly caused by ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular disease, ________ disease, or _______ disturbances that damage brain areas vital for cognitive function

cardiovascular; circulatory

17

What are risk factors associated with vascular dementia?

hypertension
hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol)
Type II diabetes mellitus
prior history of stroke
smoking

18

Vascular is the _____ most common cause of dementia. (first, second, third)

second

19

Which type of dementia is related to Parkinson's Disease? (most commonly diagnosed after age 65)

Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB)

20

What are Lewy Bodies?

abnormal clumps of alpha-synuclein protein

21

When motor deficits precede cognitive impairment, it may be _________?

Parkinson's disease

22

When cognitive impairment precedes motor deficits, it may be _________?

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

23

The following symptoms are associated to which type of dementia?
hallucinations
visuospatial impairment
sleep disturbance
fluctuating attention and vigilance
gain imbalances
reduced speech rate and fluency
executive function impairments

Dementia with Lewy Bodies

24

Frontotemporal Dementia accounts for 10% of dementia cases, most are diagnosed ______ the age of 65.

before

25

What is a nonspecific term that describes a disease or disorder of the brain?

Encephalopathy

26

What alters the brains functions and / or structure of the left and right hemispheres?

Encephalopathy

27

A higher percentage of geriatrics have what?

Encephalopathy

28

Approximately what percent of those with encephalopathy are in surgical ICU’s?

20-30%

29

What are presenting features of encephalopathy? Mark all that apply.
A. Acute change in mental state
B. Change in personality, behavior, and in cognitive functioning
C. Altered level of alertness
D. Inattentiveness, Lethargy, and Distractibility
E. All of the above

E. All of the above

30

Examples of encephalopathy etiologies include
•Infection (bacterial, viral)
•Dehydration, poor nutrition
•Metabolic deficiency
•Hypoglycemia
•Diabetic ketoacidosis
•Drug intoxication
•Anoxia
•Uremia
•Meningitis
•______ ________

Brain Tumors