Flashcards in Lecture 11, 12 Deck (80)
How is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis based on?
Based on the initial neurological signs and symptoms at the time of the event.
What are the neurological signs and symptoms used to diagnose mTBI?
-Loss of consciousness, altered mental status, amnesia or confusion
-Loss of consciousness <30 minutes
-Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15
-Post-traumatic amnesia ≤ 24 hours
What are the categories of mTBI?
What is a Mixed-mechanism mTBI?
falls, motor vehicle accident, assaults, etc
What is a military-related concussion?
blast-related, blunt force trauma, combination
What occurs during a concussion?
-ionic balance of the neurons is disrupted
-excess amounts of glutamate (neurotransmitter) are released
-toxic synapses & slowed communication between neurons (caused by the combination of dysfunction in sodium-potassium pump and too much glutamate)
What happens when there is a disruption in ionic balance of the neurons?
Potassium rushes OUT of cells
Sodium and calcium flood INTO cells
Brain temporarily goes into a _____ state consuming lots of energy and resources quickly. Followed by a __-__ day decrease in cerebral blood flow and hypometabolism.
What microstructural changes occur during mTBI?
diffuse axonal injury
Describe diffuse axonal injury.
-dysfunction that can occur in the frontal lobe, cerebellum, and corpus callosum
-unmyelinated cells are susceptible to damage
What is the acute stage of mTBI?
7 days post injury
T/F: CT and MRI scans are insensitive to neuro-pathology of mTBI (e.g., diffuse axonal injury)
What are the tree promising scans sensitive to the neuro-pathology of mTBI?
fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging
PET: positron emission tomography
SPECT: single-photon emission computed tomography
T/F: There are no current, definitive biomarkers, neuroimaging procedures, or neuropsychological tests that can diagnose remote mTBI events
What is SPECT?
single-photon emission computed tomography
What is PET?
positron emission tomography
What is fMRI?
functional magnetic resonance imaging
T/F: Lack of positive imaging findings invalidates diagnosis of mTBI.
False. does NOT
Clinical diagnosis of mTBI is based on what?
history of a traumatic injury resulting in alteration of consciousness
Acute and persistent symptoms fall within 3 categories:
List 5 physical symptoms.
vision changes, light sensitivity
List 3 emotional symptoms.
List 3 cognitive-communication symptoms.
-concentration and attention problems (processing speed)
-memory and learning
-social cognition and social communication
-word finding difficulties
_____ difficulties include: Maintaining attention, maintaining train of thought, and focusing with both verbal and visual attention
_____ is a precursor to memory and learning.
Slow information processing includes:
-evident on timed tasks, verbal fluency measures
-following complex, multistep instructions
____ working memory impacts language comprehension. 79% prevalence in persons with mTBI.
Impairments in verbal memory encoding and learning efficiency contributes to ______ learning difficulties.
______ memory can negatively impact quality of life.