Lecture 11, 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 11, 12 Deck (80)
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1

How is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis based on?

Based on the initial neurological signs and symptoms at the time of the event.

2

What are the neurological signs and symptoms used to diagnose mTBI?

-Loss of consciousness, altered mental status, amnesia or confusion
-Loss of consciousness <30 minutes
-Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15
-Post-traumatic amnesia ≤ 24 hours

3

What are the categories of mTBI?

Sports-related concussion
Mixed-mechanism mTBI
Military-related concussion

4

What is a Mixed-mechanism mTBI?

falls, motor vehicle accident, assaults, etc

5

What is a military-related concussion?

blast-related, blunt force trauma, combination

6

What occurs during a concussion?

-ionic balance of the neurons is disrupted
-excess amounts of glutamate (neurotransmitter) are released
-toxic synapses & slowed communication between neurons (caused by the combination of dysfunction in sodium-potassium pump and too much glutamate)

7

What happens when there is a disruption in ionic balance of the neurons?

Potassium rushes OUT of cells
Sodium and calcium flood INTO cells

8

Brain temporarily goes into a _____ state consuming lots of energy and resources quickly. Followed by a __-__ day decrease in cerebral blood flow and hypometabolism.

Hyperactive; 7-10

9

What microstructural changes occur during mTBI?

diffuse axonal injury
edema
inflammation

10

Describe diffuse axonal injury.

-dysfunction that can occur in the frontal lobe, cerebellum, and corpus callosum
-unmyelinated cells are susceptible to damage

11

What is the acute stage of mTBI?

7 days post injury

12

T/F: CT and MRI scans are insensitive to neuro-pathology of mTBI (e.g., diffuse axonal injury)

True

13

What are the tree promising scans sensitive to the neuro-pathology of mTBI?

fMRI: functional magnetic resonance imaging
PET: positron emission tomography
SPECT: single-photon emission computed tomography

14

T/F: There are no current, definitive biomarkers, neuroimaging procedures, or neuropsychological tests that can diagnose remote mTBI events

True

15

What is SPECT?

single-photon emission computed tomography

16

What is PET?

positron emission tomography

17

What is fMRI?

functional magnetic resonance imaging

18

T/F: Lack of positive imaging findings invalidates diagnosis of mTBI.

False. does NOT

19

Clinical diagnosis of mTBI is based on what?

history of a traumatic injury resulting in alteration of consciousness

20

Acute and persistent symptoms fall within 3 categories:

physical
emotional
cognitive

21

List 5 physical symptoms.

headaches
sleep disturbance
dizziness
balance problems
fatigue
vision changes, light sensitivity
tinnitus

22

List 3 emotional symptoms.

irritability
anxiety
depression
post-traumatic stress
mood swings

23

List 3 cognitive-communication symptoms.

-concentration and attention problems (processing speed)
-memory and learning
-executive function
-social cognition and social communication
-word finding difficulties

24

_____ difficulties include: Maintaining attention, maintaining train of thought, and focusing with both verbal and visual attention

Functional

25

_____ is a precursor to memory and learning.

Attention

26

Slow information processing includes:

-evident on timed tasks, verbal fluency measures
-processing conversations
-following directions
-note-taking
-following complex, multistep instructions

27

____ working memory impacts language comprehension. 79% prevalence in persons with mTBI.

Verbal

28

Impairments in verbal memory encoding and learning efficiency contributes to ______ learning difficulties.

academic

29

______ memory can negatively impact quality of life.

episodic

30

List 3 things involved in social communication.

•Requires rapid evaluation of context and listener •Prior to initiating an appropriate topic
•Providing sufficient and relevant, but not excessive details
•Controlling utterance length•Allowing others to comment
•Using both verbal and nonverbal methods to convey stated and implied meaning