Flashcards in Quizzies (Vertebral Artery & Miscellaneous Cervical ) Deck (23)
The vertebral artery on which side is typically larger?
Left vertebral artery
What is the gender bias regarding size of the vertebral artery?
Men have larger vertebral arteries than women
What was the name of the physical exam used to determine vertebral artery patency?
The vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency test
Which side artery was tested during the course of the vertebrobasilar artery insufficiency exam?
The ipsilateral artery on the side of rotation
What are the symptoms of failure of the vertebral artery to compensate during the vertebrobasilar arery insufficiency exam?
Dizziness, vertigo, nausea are common complaints
The vertebral artery is typically a branch of which artery?
Typically, at what vertebral level will the vertebral artery first become located in the transverse foramen?
At what location will the vertebral artery form its first compensatory loop?
The atlanto-axial interspace
At what location will the vertebral artery form its second compensatory loop?
The atlanto-occipital interspace
At what segments will the vertebral artery be firmly attached to the transverse foramen?
Both C1 and C2
What is the purpose of the vertebral artery loops between C2, C1, and occiput?
The increased length will accommodate the greater rotation at these locations
What happens to the vertebral artery as it enters the vertebral foramen of C1?
The adventitia of the artery blends with the dura mater and arachnoid mater; as a result, the artery lies in the subarachnoid space
What happens to the vertebral artery after it enters the subarachnoid space at C1?
The vertebral artery ascends along the medulla oblongata to the pontine-medullary junction where the right and left arteries unite to form the basilar artery
What joint classifications are present at C7?
Synovial plane (diarthrosis arthrodia), modified synovial saddle (diarthrosis sellar), fibrous (amphiarthrosis) syndesmosis, and cartilaginous (amphiarthrosis) symphysis
What forms the boundaries for the exit of the C1 nerve from the spinal canal?
Occipital condyle, superior articular process of C1, capsular ligament, arcuate rim, groove for the vertebral artery, posterior atlanto-occipital ligament
What forms the anterior boundary for the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal?
Inferior articular process of C1, superior articular process of C2, capsular ligament
What forms the posterior boundary for the C2 nerve exit from the spinal canal?
The posterior arch of C1, lamina of C2, and posterior atlanto-axial ligament
What forms the anterior boundary for the C3-C7 nerve exit from the spinal canal?
The vertebral bodies, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, uncinate process, lateral groove
What forms the anterior boundary for the C8 nerve exit from the spinal canal?
The vertebral bodies of C7 and T1, intervertebral disc, posterior longitudinal ligament, capsular ligament of the costocentral joint, superior costal facet of T1, and articular surface of the first rib
What are the superior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebrae?
C1 is backward, upward, and medial (BUM); C2 is backward, upward, lateral (BUL); C3-C7 is backward upward, and medial (BUM)
What are the inferior articular facet orientations for the cervical vertebrae?
C1 is backward, downward and medial (BMD); C2-C6 is forward, downward, lateral (FoLD); C7 is forward, downward, medial (ForMeD)
How many synovial joints are identified for each cervical vertebra?
C1 = five, C2 = eight, C3-C6 = eight, C7 = six