Flashcards in Intervertebral Foramen/Curvatures of the Column Deck (87)
What percent of total vertebral column length does "true" intervertebral height from C2-S1 equal?
What percent of total vertebral column length does all intervertebral foramina height from occiput-Co1 equal?
What are the segmental arteries of the cervical spine?
The vertebral artery, ascending cervical artery, and deep cervical artery
What are the segmental arteries of the thoracic spine?
The deep cervical artery, highest (superior) intercostal artery, posterior intercostal artery, and subcostal artery
What are the segmental arteries of the lumbar spine?
The lumbar arteries, iliolumbar artery, lateral sacral artery, and median sacral artery
What are the characteristics of the artery of adamkiewicz?
It is a left side, anterior medullary feeder artery located in the T9/T10 intervertebral foramen, and the primary vascular supply to the lumbar enlargement
What will the intervertebral veins drain into?
The external vertebral venous plexus or Batson's plexus
What is a unique histological feature of the veins of the vertebral column?
They appear to lack valves
What increases the depth or length or the intervertebral foramen in the cervical spine?
The transverse process
What is the location of the spinal nerve within the cervical intervertebral foramen?
Toward the front and middle of the height of the cervical intervertebral foramen
What is the relationship between aging and cervical spine nerve root characteristics?
The length of the nerve root increases as it descends from its apparent origin on the spinal cord, but the cross-sectional area of the nerve root decreases
What is the relationship between aging and cervical spine intervertebral foramen size?
The cross-sectional area diminishes after age 50
What are the specific attachment sites for a cervical spinal nerve?
The sulcus for the ventral primary ramus on the costotransverse bar and the vertebral artery
What contributes to the anterior boundary of the thoracic intervertebral foramen?
The costocentral joint
Which are the largest spinal nerves?
L5 and S1 spinal nerves
What increases the length of the intervertebral foramen at L5?
The lumbosacral tunnel
What forms the lumbosacral tunnel?
The lumbosacral ligament, transverse process of L5, and sacral ala
What condition is the result of encroachment on the L5 spinal nerve?
The far out syndrome
What ligament may contribute to the loss of size in the lumbar intervertebral foramen?
The transforminal ligament
What is unusual about the sacral intervertebral foramen compared to other intervertebral foramina?
A completely osseous boundary exists
What is unique about the relationship of spinal nerve to intervertebral foramen at S5-Co1?
There are two nerves present, S5 nerve & Co1 nerve
What are some examples of destructive lesions of the vertebral body?
Tuberculosis, hemangiomas, osteoporosis
What may reduce the impact to intervertebral disc loss of integrity on the intervertebral foramen in the cervical and thoracic spine?
The joint of Luschka in the cervicals, the costocentral joint in the thoracics
What are examples of osteophyte formation that influence the intervertebral foramen?
The bony spurs of the vertebral body and para-articular processes on the lamina
What are examples of acquired alterations of the spinal curves identified in class?
Obesity, pregnancy, and the use of heavy backpacks
Why is the posterior curve also called the primary curve?
It is the first curve to appear embryologically
What are the adult remnants of the primary curve along the vertebral column?
The thoracic or dorsal curve and the pelvic or sacrococcygeal curve
What are the names given to curves which form during development to reverse the direction of regions along the vertebral column?
Anterior curve, secondary curve, compensatory curve
What are the names of the anterior curves, secondary curves, and compensatory curves?
Cervical curve and lumbar curve