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Flashcards in RBC Pathway And Abnormalities Deck (75):
0

Erythrocytes normal values in conventional unit

Male: 5.5-6.5 million/cu.mm
Female: 4.5-5.5 million/cu.mm

1

Effect of gender in RBC count

Estrogen inhibits erythropoiesis. Decrease RBC count
Androgen stimulates erythropoiesis. Increase RBC count

2

Decrease oxygen means?

Increase erythropoiesis. Increase RBC count

3

Conditions with increase RBC count

Polycythemia Vera
Chronic heart disease
Dehydration
Lung disease
Acute poisoning
Residing in a place with high altitude

4

Conditions with decrease RBC count

Anemia
Hemorrhage
Oligocythemia

5

Substrate for aldolase cleavage for the final product of phase 1

Fructose-1,6-biphosphate

7

Anaerobic glycolysis, non oxidative pathway

Embden-Meyerhof pathway

8

ATP is not used in what situation?

Oxygen release to tissue
Oxygen binding to heme

9

Product of EMP

2 ATP

10

By product of EMP phase 1

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate G3P

11

Necessary for the production of 2,3-BPG

Leubering-Rapoport Pathway

12

Production of 2,3-DPG is dependent in what enzyme?

Phosphofructokinase

13

Functional dependent in G6PD

Hexose-monophosphate shunt

14

Co factor for glutathione reductase

NADPH

15

Reduced form of glutathione

GSH

16

Maintains the iron in the hemoglobin in its reduced state

Methemoglobin reductase pathway

17

Reduced state of iron

Ferrous

18

Esterification of plasma cholesterol is controlled by what enzyme

Lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase

20

Converts methemoglobin to hemoglobin

Cytochrome b5 reductase

21

Protein stain

Coomasie blue

22

Proteins require this powerful detergent

Sodium dodecyl sulfate

23

Membrane proteins are named according to their selective position in?

SDS-PAGE

24

Most commonly defined abnormality appears to be a defect in spectrin

Hereditary elliptocytosis

25

Disorder produced by the cholesterol overloading of the membrane

Acanthocytes

26

Acathocytes is associated with?

Abetalipoproteinemia and Mcleod syndrome

28

Principal skeletal proteins

Alpha and beta spectrin

29

Cup shaped in wet preparation

Target cells

30

Target cells is commonly found in?

Obstructive liver disease

31

Mechanism of RBC destruction

Extravascular and intravascular destruction

32

Main graveyard of RBC

Spleen

33

RBC parameter

MCH
MCV

34

3 phases of EMP

Primary investing phase
Pay-off phase
Conversion to pyruvate

35

Variation in cell size

Anisocytosis

36

Variation in cellshape

Poikilocytosis

37

RBC size is smaller than the nucleus of lymphocytes

Microcytic

38

RBC size is bigger than the small lymphocytes

Macrocytic

39

Mutation in the gene for band 3 that results in increased rigidity of the membrane and resistant to the invasion by malaria

Southeast asian ovalocytosis

40

Elliptocytes which show slit like areas pallor

HE with stomatocytosis

41

Due to the alterations in RBC membrane-spectrin

Elliptocytes

42

Normal MCV of RBC

80-100fl

43

Kind of RBC destruction wherein the RBC lyses in the vessels from purely mechanical or traumatic cause

Intravascular hemolysis

44

Variant of hereditary elliptocytosis characterized by marked poikilocytosis and heat sensitivity

Hereditary pyropoikilocytosis

45

High prevalence of southeast asian ovalocytosis occurs in?

Malaysia

46

RBC with irregular spicules

Acanthocyte
Thorn cell

47

Regularly spicule surface

Burr cells

48

Burr cells is commonly seen in?

Pyruvate kinase deficiency
Uremia
Cancer of the stomach
Acute blood loss

49

Commonly found in obstructive liver disease where the increase surface area is due to an accumulation of cholesterol and lecithin due inhibition of plasma LCAT activity by bile salts

Target cells

50

Defects in proteins that disrupt the vertical interactions between transmembrane protein and the underlying protein cytoskeleton

Hereditary spherocytosis

51

Half moon, spiculated resembling two horns results from ruptured vacuole

Keratocytes

52

Seen in myelofibrosis and myeloidmelaplasia

Dacryocytes

53

Result from fragmentation and squeezing of cell during splenic persuasion

Dacryocytes

54

Red cell fragments. An intrinsic abnormality of the red cell which makes it more likely to fragment

Schistocyte or schizocyte

55

Seen in MAHA, HUS and DIC

Schizocyte

56

Due to the polymerization of abnormal Hb-HbS

Sickle cells or depranocytes

57

MCHC is high, less deformable, so they pile up in the spleen causing blockages

Spherocytes

58

Elongated RBC with a slit like central pallor

Stomatocytes

59

Stomatocytes are seen in

Severe hemolytic anemia
Hereditary stomatocytosis
Alcoholism
Rh null disease
Mediterranean stomatocytosis

60

Dimpled, resembling pinched. Have two small areas of central pallor separated by a band on hemoglobin

Knizocytes

61

Seen in polychromatophilia, lead poisoning and in impaired hemoglobin synthesis

Basophilic stippling

62

Abnormal instability of the RNA in the young cells

Basophilic stippling

63

Composed of nuclear ribosomes or denatured proteins

Cabot rings

64

Caused by excess red cell membrane to the hemoglobin content of the cell

Target cell

65

Smooth round remnants of DNA, usually single

Howell jolly body

66

Howell jolly body is seen in

Megaloblastic anemia
Severe hemolytic anemia
After splenectomy

67

Siderotic dranules. Iron from sideromes and mitochondria that are stained with prussian blue. Often near periphery of the cell

Pappenheimer bodies

68

Presence indicates increase erythropoiesis

Reticulocytes

69

Figure of eight. Or loop shaped
The rings are probably microtubules from a mitotic spindle

Cabot rings

70

Rouleaux formation is seen in?

Monoclonal gammopathy

71

Might appear in the blood with polychromatophilic normoblast

Nucleated RBC

72

Large numbers of circulating RBC are seen in

Hemolytic disease of newborns
Thalassemia major

73

Iron aggregates

Pappenheimer

74

Clumping of red cells

Agglutination

75

Cigar shaped or egg shaped

Elliptocytes

76

Defective proteins disrupt the horizontal linkages in the protein cytoskeleton and weaken the mechanical stability of the membrane

Hereditary elliptocytosis

79

Alignment of red cells upon one another. Resembling a stack of coins

Rouleaux formation