Why might people go to war?
-To defend their country against attack.
-To defend their beliefs, religion, freedom and way of life or to extend these to others.
-To defend an ally or protect a weaker country that was unfairly attacked.
-To remove their own leader or government (civil war).
-To gain more land or regain territory lost in a previous war.
-To gain wealth, power or important resources.
-To stop atrocities such as genocide in another country or to depose a dictator.
Describe a modern war.
-The Vietnam War (1959-1975) was fought between the communist North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The North won.
-Besides the many millions killed in the conflict, the war created a massive problem of refugees.
Describe a modern conflict of territories.
-The Falklands conflict occured in 1982 after Argentina invaded to British territories in April. Britain sent a taskforce to protect the islanders and regain control of the islands.
-Argentina surrendered in June, the 'war' had not yet officially declared and was over in 74 days, although 907 people died.
What are the consequences of war, good and bad?
✅Freedom from an occupying power.
✅Replacement of a corrupt government.
❌Deaths and injuries.
❌Destruction of country's economy, culture and infrastructure.
❌Disease and famine can spread.
❌Homeless refugees often reduced to living in squalid conditions.
❌Every hour £100 million is spent worldwide on weapons of war➡️Money could go towards solving problems like world poverty and hunger.
An absence of conflict which leads to happiness and harmony.
Bringing about what is right, fair, according to the law or making up for what has been done wrong.
How can someone find peace even during conflict?
Through their religious faith.
This sense of peace is a constant presence in their lives which they may encourage through prayer and meditation.
Why do some people believe that without justice there can never be peace?
Because unfairness makes people angry and this can lead to conflict with those who are seen to be the cause of unfairness.
How is the sanctity of life used as an arguement against war?
The sanctity of life is the idea that life is sacred and God-given, therefore it is not up to humans to take it away.
The belief of people who refuse to take part in war and any other form of violence.
Who are Quakers?
Members of the Society of Friends, a Christian denomination. Quakers have a strong tradition of pacifism.
What do pacifists believe?
-Religious➡️Sanctity of life.
-Religious➡️Killing goes against teachings.
-War causes suffering, bitterness, hatred, prejudice and greed.
-War damages the environment and wastes precious lives and resources.
-Loss of life will have achieved very little, as quite often negotiation is needed to end disputes.
-Using violence to achieve freedom or other positive goals is sinking to the same level as the opressor.
What are the Buddhist beliefs about war?
-Buddhists follow First Precept➡️Do not harm any living thing.
-Compassion for all life (metta) makes war unacceptable.
-Many Buddhists say it is better to be killed than to kill.
-Therevada➡️Killing is always wrong. Anyone who kills will have serious consequences in this or another life, despite intentions.
-Mahayana➡️Killing is wrong but may sometimes be necessary to save others.
What are the Christian beliefs about war?
-Early Christians practised non violence and would not take revenge, even on persecutors➡️Jesus did not resist arrest and allowed himself to be crucified.
-Christians pacifists are willing to die, but not to kill for their beliefs.
-During WW1 and WW2 many pacifists were imprisoned for refusing to fight.
What is 'Turning the Tide'?
A Quaker campaign group working for peace.
It aims to show how cycles of conflict can be broken through negotiation and non-violent strategies.
What is a just war?
A war the the Christian Church defines as acceptable. This must fit certain criteria.
The concept of Just war is also present in Hinduism, Islam, Judaism and Sikhism.
What is a holy war?
Fighting for a religious cause or God, probably controlled by a religious leader.
What criteria must a war need to fit to be considered just?
-Just cause➡️E.g: Self defence.
-Lawfully declared by proper authority➡️Rulers of countries involved.
-Good intention and once its aims are achieved, it must end.
-Be a last resort.
-Reasonable chance of success.
-Fought by just means➡️Anyone not fighting shouldn't be harmed.
-In proportion to the aims it seeks to achieve.
-Only occur if the good achieved outweighs the evil that led to war.
Why might a holy war be declared?
Religious leaders may declare a holy war to defend their religion or their followers who are being persecuted in another country.
Some holy wars were fought to win back a country that used to follow the beliefs of a religion, or to spread their faith.
When have some Christians accepted to necessity of violent action?
-Jesus used force to drive out those who turned the Temple into a 'den of thieves'.
-Dietrich Bonhoeffer, a German Christian minister, took part in a plot to assasinate Hitler in WW2.
-Some South American Christians support 'liberation thoelogy'➡️The need for fighting to overthrow unjust, oppressive governments.
People who flee from their homes seeking safety elsewhere.
Who are the Red Cross?
A humanitarian agency that helps people suffering from war or other disasters.
Who are the Red Crescent?
The same as the Red Cross, but predominantly in Muslim countries.
What is the aim of the Red Cross and Red Crescent?
Their aims are to protect and ensure respect for human life and health; and to prevent and alleviate suffering without any discrimination.
What happened in 1950 in Tibet?
-The Chinese army invaded Tibet. Despite peace talks and attempts to bring about a peaceful solution, the Chinese treated the Tibetan people very badly.
-Over 80,000 Tibetans fled the country, the Dalai Lama escaped to India where he has lived since 1960 as leader of the Tibetan government-in-exile.
How did the Dalai Lama respond to the Chinese occupation of Tibet?
-The Dalai Lama refused to consider violence and instead encouraged refugees to save the Tibetan culture and way of life.
-Over 200 monasteries have been established in India and refugee children are taught Tibetan language, history, religion and culture.
-In 1987 the Dalai Lama proposed a five-point peace plan which was rejected➡️He still works for a peaceful resolution and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989.
What is the United Nations?
The UN is an organisation set up at the end of WW2 to prevent war by discussing problems between countries.
What are the aims of the UN?
-To help countries cooperate with each other through international law and security.
-Protection of human rights.
-To establish world peace.
What is the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation?
NATO is an alliance formed to prevent war in Europe.
How does NATO work?
If a NATO country is attacked, the others view it as an attack on their own nations.