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Flashcards in Renal Deck (6)
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1

Name the 6 drug groups that are diuretics.

1. Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
2. Thiazide Diuretics
3. Loop Diuretics
4. Potassium Sparing Diuretics
5. Osmotic Diuretics
6. ADH Analogue

2

List 4 factors that predispose the kidney (nephron) to toxicity?

1: Increased blood flow of all organs (large blood volume passes through it)
2: Drug and chemical mixing which leads to drug interactions
3: Reabsorption of water causing the concentration of toxins
4: Proximal convoluted tubule secretes drugs/organic toxins

3

Name the 6 toxin induced pathogenic mechanisms in the nephron.

1: Altered glomerular hemodynamics
2: Tubular cell toxicity (decreased mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, free radicals and transport interference)
3: Inflammation (nephritis)
4: Crystal nephropathy
5: Rhabdomyolysis
6: Thrombotic Microangiopathy

4

Name the 4 clinical presentation of nephrotoxicity.

1: Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)
2: Nephrotic Syndrome
3: Renal Tubular Dysfunction
4: Chronic Renal Failure

5

List 4 things that increase a person's susceptibility to nephrotoxins.

1: Intravascular restriction (RAAS and PG system activation)
2: Decreased available normal tissue recovery (females and Chronic Kidney Diseases)
3: Genetic variation
4: Inflammation response

6

Name as many common nephrotoxins as possible.

Ibuprofen
COX2 inhibitors
Aspirin
Thiazides
Proton pump inhibitors (Omeprazole and Pantoprazole)
Furosemide
Anti-epileptics
Catopril
Streptokinase
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Sulphamethxazole
Ciprofloxacin
Rifampicin
Gentamicin
Vancomycin
Azithromycin
Quinine
Traditional herbs (Impila?)