Cephalosporins Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Cephalosporins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cephalosporins Deck (21)
Loading flashcards...
1

How many generations of Cephalosporins are there?

4

2

Name two drugs that are 1st generation Cephalosporins.

1. Cefalexin
2. Cefadroxil

3

Name two drugs that are 2nd generation Cephalosporins.

1. Cefuroxime
2. Cefamandole

4

Name two drugs that are 3rd generation Cephalosporins.

1. Cefotaxime
2. Ceftriaxone

5

Name two drugs that are 4th generation Cephalosporins.

1. Cefepime
2. Cefpirome

6

How are 1st generation Cephalosporins administered?

- Oral

7

How are 2nd generation Cephalosporins administered?

Cefuroxime:
- Oral
- IV
- IM
Cefamandole:
- IV

8

How are 3rd generation Cephalosporins administered?

- IV
- IM

9

How are 4th generation Cephalosporins adminstered?

Cefepime:
- IV
- IM
Cefpirome:
- IV

10

What is the MOA of a 1st generation Cephalosporin (include elimination)?

- Similar to Penicillin
- Variable half-life (increased by Probenecid)

- Excreted via kidney

11

What is the MOA of a 2nd generation Cephalosporin (include elimination)?

- Similar to Penicillin
- Variable half-life (increased by Probenecid)

- Excreted via kidney

12

What is the MOA of a 3rd generation Cephalosporin (include elimination)?

- Similar to Penicillin
- Penetrated well into CSF

- 40% hepatic elimination

13

What is the MOA of a 4th generation Cephalosporin (include elimination)?

- Similar to Penicillin
- B-lactamase resistant

14

What spectrum are 1st generation Cephalosporins?

- Streptococci
- Staphylococci

* Most effective against Gram +ve

15

What spectrum are 2nd generation Cephalosporins?

- Streptococci and Staphylococci (same as 1st)
- E.coli
- Klebsiella
- Proteus
- H.influenza
- Enterobacter

16

What spectrum are 3rd generation Cephalosporins?

- Gram +ve (and H.influenza)
- N.gonorrheae
- Salmonella
- P.aeruginosa

17

What spectrum are 4th generation Cephalosporins?

- Gram +ve and -ve (same as 1st, 2nd and 3rd gen.)
- Especially: P.aeruginosa

18

When is Ceftriaxone contra-indicated?

- Neonates
- Increased calcium solution

19

What drug interactions occur with Ceftriaxone?

- Alcohol
- Warfarin
- NSAIDs
- COCP
- Probenecid
- Cephalosporins
- Aminoglycosides (inactivate)

20

What main side effect is caused by Cefamandole?

- Alcohol intolerance

21

What are the general side effects of Cephalosporins?

- Hypersensitivity reactions
- Cross-hypersensitivity (patients may tolerate)
- Decreased effect of COCP
- Nephrotoxic (with vancomycin or aminoglycosides)
- Neurotoxin (high dose or renal impairment)
- IV administration = phlebitis and erythema