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Flashcards in Renal phys Deck (23)
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1

RPF, GFR, FF (GFR/RPF) in afferent arteriole constriction

RPF: down
GFR: up
FF: constant

2

RPF, GFR, FF (GFR/RPF) in efferent arteriole constriction

RPF: down
GFR: up
FF: up

3

RPF, GFR, FF (GFR/RPF) in increased plasma protein concentration

RPF: constant
GFR: down
FF: down

4

RPF, GFR, FF (GFR/RPF) in decreased plasma protein concentration

RPF: constant
GFR: up
FF: up

5

RPF, GFR, FF (GFR/RPF) in constriction of ureter

RPF: constant
GFR: down
FF: down

6

What shifts K+ out of cell causing hyperkalemia?

Digitalis
HyperOsmolarity
Insulin deficiency
Lysis of cells
Acidosis
β-adrenergic antagonist

Patient with hyperkalemia? DO Insulin LAβ
work.

7

What shifts K+ into cells causing hypokalemia?

Hypo-osmolarity
Insulin (increase Na+/K+ ATPase)
Alkalosis
β-adrenergic agonist (increase Na+/K+ ATPase)

INsulin shifts K+ INto cells

8

What will S/Sx a low serum concentration of Na+? high serum concentration?

Low:Nausea and malaise, stupor, coma

High: Irritability, stupor, coma

9

What will S/Sx a low serum concentration of K+? high serum concentration?

Low: U waves on ECG, flattened T waves, arrhythmias, muscle weakness

High: Wide QRS and peaked T waves on ECG, arrhythmias, muscle weakness

10

What will S/Sx a low serum concentration of Ca+? high serum concentration?

Low: Tetany, seizures, QT prolongation

High: Stones (renal), bones (pain), groans (abdominal pain), psychiatric overtones (anxiety, altered mental status), but not necessarily calciuria

11

What will S/Sx a low serum concentration of Mg+? high serum concentration?

Low: Tetany, torsades de pointes

High: decreased DTRs, lethargy, bradycardia, hypotension, cardiac arrest, hypocalcemia

12

What will S/Sx a low serum concentration of PO4-? high serum concentration?

Low: Bone loss, osteomalacia

High: Renal stones, metastatic calcifications, hypocalcemia

13

Give the pH, PCO2, HCO3 & compensatory response for metabolic acidosis

pH: down
PCO2: down
HCO: down (most imp)
Compensatory: immediate hyperventilate

14

Give the pH, PCO2, HCO3 & compensatory response for metabolic alkalosis

pH: up
PCO2: up
HCO: up (most imp)
Compensatory: immediate hypoventilate

15

Give the pH, PCO2, HCO3 & compensatory response for respiratory acidosis

pH: down
PCO2: up (most imp)
HCO: up
Compensatory: delayed increased renal HCO3 reabsorb

16

Give the pH, PCO2, HCO3 & compensatory response for respiratory alkalosis

pH: up
PCO2: down (most imp)
HCO: low
Compensatory: decreased renal HCO3 reabsorb

17

Differentiate acidosis/alkalosis by checking arterial pH & if compensation has occurred

pH < 7.4 => PCO2 > 40mmHg => respiratory acidosis
pH < 7.4 => PCO2 < 40mmHg => metabolic acidosis w/ hypervent

pH >7.4 => PCO2 > 40mmHg => metabolic alkalosis w/ hypovent
pH > 7.4 => PCO < 40mmHg => respiratory alkalosis

18

What are causes of respiratory acidosis?

hypoventiliation due to =>
airway obstruction
acute lung dz
chronic lung dz
opioids, sedatives
weakening of respiratory muscles

19

What are causes of respiratory alkalosis?

hyperventilation due to =>
hysteria
hypoxemia (high altitude)
Salicylates (early)
Tumor
Pulmonary embolism

20

What are causes of metabolic alkalosis w/ compensation of hypoventilation?

Loop diuretics
Vomiting
Antacid use
Hyperaldosteronism

21

How do you calculate anion gap? what is normal range?

anion gap = Na+ - (Cl- + HCO3-) => 8-12 mEq/L

22

What are causes of metabolic acidosis w/ increased anion gap?

MUDPILES:
Methanol (formic acid)
Uremia
DKA
Propylene glycol
Iron tablets or INH
Lactic acidosis
Ethylene glycol (oxalic acid)
Salicylates (late)

23

What are causes of normal anion gap metabolic acidosis?

HARD-ASS:
Hyperalimentation
Addison dz
Renal tubular acidosis
Diarrhea
Acetazolamide
Spironolactone
Saline infusion