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Flashcards in Antibiotics Deck (91)
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1

Name the DNA topoisomerases (class & names)

Fluoroquinolones => "-oxacin"

Quinolone => nalidixic acid

2

Name ABx that damages DNA

metronidazole

3

name ABx that disrupts bacterial mRNA synthesis (RNA polymerase)

rifampin

4

Which ABx bind to protein synthesis 50S subunit? class & name

Chloramphenicol
Clindamycin
Linezolid

Macrolides=> Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin

Streptogramins=> Quinupristin, Dalfopristin

5

Which ABx bind to protein synthesis 30S subunit? class & name

Aminoglycosides=> gentamicin, neomycin, amikacin, tobramycin, streptomycin

Tetracyclines=> tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline

6

What are the Folic acid synthesis (DNA methylation) inhibitors? What is the difference in them?

Sulfonamides (block PABA to DHF) => Sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfadiazine

Trimethoprim blocks DHF to THF

7

What are the two types of cell wall synthesis inhibitors?

Peptidoglycan synthesis

Peptidoglycan cross-linking

8

What are the cell wall peptidoglycan synthesis inhibitors?

Glycopeptides=> vancomycin, bacitracin

9

What are the cell wall peptidoglycan cross linking inhibitors?

Penicillinase sensitive penicillins => Pen G, V; Ampicillin, Amoxicillin

Penicillinase-resistant penicillins => oxacillin, nafcillin, dicloxacillin

Antipseudomonals=> ticarcillin, piperacillin

Cephalosporins

Carbapenems=> Imipenem, meropenem, ertrapenem, doripenem

Monobactams => aztreonam

10

Name one individual drug from each class of cephalosporins

1=> cephazolin, cephalexin

2=> Cefoxitin, cefaclor, cefuroxime

3=> ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime

4=> Cefipime

5=> Ceftaroline

11

What treats anaerobes above the diaphragm? what treats anaerobes below the diaphragm?

Clindamycin above

Metronidazole below

12

What does Metronidazole treat?

GET GAP on the Metro!
Giardia, Entamoeba, Trichomonas
Gardnerella vaginalis, Anaerobes (Bacteroides, C. dif), H. Pylori

13

What is the "Triple therapy" against H. pylori?

PPI, metronidazole, clarithromycin

14

If M. tuberculosis is suspected in the area of the patient, what can be used for prophylaxis?

Isoniazid

15

What is the Tx for M. tuberculosis?

RIPE
Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol

16

What is the prophylaxis of M. avium-intracellulare?

Azithromycine, rifabutin

17

What is the Treatment for M. leprae?

Long term treatment w/ dapsone & rifampin for tuberculoid form

Add clofazimine for lepromatous form

18

What is a meningococcal prophylaxis agent?

rifamycin=> rifampin, rifabutin

19

What can be used as chemoprophylaxis in contacts of children w/ H. flu type B?

Rifamycin=> rifampin, rifabutin

20

What are the 4 Rs of Rifampin?

RNA polymerase inhibitor
Ramps up microsomal cytochrome P-450
Red/orange body fluids
Rapid resistance if used alone

21

Why is rifabutin favored over rifampin in HIV patients?

Rifampin ramps up p-450 but rifabutin does not

22

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Endocarditis w/ surgical or dental procedures

penicillins

23

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Gonorrhea

Ceftriaxone

24

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Hx of recurrent UTIs

TMP-SMX

25

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Meningococcal infection

ciprofloxacin (DOC), rifampin for children

26

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Pregnant women carrying GBS

Ampicillin

27

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for prevention of gonococcal or chlamydial conjunctivitis in newborn

erythromycin ointment

28

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for prevention of post-surg infection due to S. aureus

Cefazolin

29

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for prophylaxis of strep pharyngitis in child w/ prior rheumatic fever

oral penicillin

30

Antimicrobial prophylaxis for Syphilis

Benzathine penicillin G