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Flashcards in Research Methods: Data Handling Deck (17):

What is quantitative data?

Data in numerical form where statistical evidence is easily presented in the forms of graphs and tables


What are the disadvantages of quantitative data?

Data collected in quantitative research will be less meaningful because the information is narrowly focused. E.g. Scores

Low external validity


What are the strengths of quantitative data?

Can be easily analysed and converted into numerical data and graphs

Replication is possible and data is more objective

Less biased


Define qualitative data.

Data in the written form that usually focuses on thoughts, feelings, attitudes and opinions and usually involves some form of discussion or observation.


What are the limitations of qualitative data?

More difficult to replicate, analyse and is less reliable due to its subjective method.



What are the strengths of qualitative data?

Data is meaningful because they are collected first hand and can be put into context

Rich and detailed so therefore has high external validity.

Can be quantified.


What is primary data?

original data that has been collected specifically for the purpose of the investigation by the researcher. It is data collected first hand towards a research aim that has not been published before.


What is the disadvantage of primary data?

producing primary data requires time and effort on the part of the researcher.


what is the advantages of primary data/

it is authentic data obtained from the participants themselves for the purpose of a particular investigation so very relevant.


more reliable and valid as it hasn't been manipulated


What is secondary data?

this refers o data originally colleced for another research aim which has been published and includes data located in journal article, books or websites.




What are the disadvanatges of secondary data?

there may be substancial variation in the quality and accuracy of secondary data such as that it may be outdated or incomplete.

the context of the data may not quite match the researcher's needs or objectives.



What are the advanatges of secondary data?

Secondary data may be inexepnsive and easily accessed requiring minimal effort.

When examining secondary data, the researcher may find that the desired data already exists and so there is no need to collect primary data

secondary data drwan form several sources can help to give clearer insight into a research area that primary data cannot.


What is meta analysis?

It is a particular form of research method that uses secondary data and refers to the process where data from a large number of studies involving the same research questions and methods are ocmbined.


What is a qualitative meta analysis?

Where the researcher may simply discuss the findings/conclusions


What is quantitative meta analysis?

This is where they may perform a statistical analysis of the combined data and calculate the effect size of the DV which would give the overall relationship between variables across a number of studies.


What are the disadavntages of meta analysis?

It is prone to publiucation bias where the researcher may choose to leave the studies with negative or non-significant results. Therefore, a biased and incorrect conclusion wiull be drawn.


What are the advantages of meta analysis?

can be generalised


allows identification of trends and relationships that wouldn't be possible from smaller studies.