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Flashcards in Research methods: sampling Deck (19):

What is an aim?

A general statement which describes what the psychological research will be about.


What is an hypothesis?

A formal, clear statement of what you predict will happen between two variables


When do you use a non-direction hypothesis?

if previous research hasn't been carried out of if previous evidence is conflicting


What is the target population?

the people that the researcher decides he wants to be able to generalize his findings to.


What is a random sample?

A random sample is a sample in which everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being selected.


What are the strengths of random sampling?

It eliminates sampling bias

It represents the whole target population


What are the limitations of random sampling?

It is difficult to achieve as it is time consuming and requires a lot of effort espescially with a big sample


What is an opportunity sample?

only selecting people that are available at that time


What are the strengths of opportunity sampling?

it is quick, convenient and cheap


What are the limitations of opportunity sampling?

It is usually unrepresentative and often biased by the researcher who will likely choose people who are 'helpful'.


What is a volunteer sample?

Individuals who have self selected themselves to be involved in the study.


What are the strengths of volunteer sampling?

It is considered ethical as everyone has informed consent making it convenient. It is also quick.


What are the limitations of volunteer sampling?

It is unrepresentative as it leads to bias on behalf of the participant as it is only people who are interested.


What is a stratified sample?

A random selection from each strata based on proportion that they occur.


What are the strengths of a stratified sample?

This makes the sample representative of the target population.


What are the limitations of a stratified sample?

It is time consuming because the sub categories have to be identifies and proportions have to be calculated.


What is a systematic sample?

A sample in which sample members from a target population are selected according to a random starting position and then at fixed periodic intervals.


What are the strengths of systematic sampling?

the population will be evenly sampled.

its also quick and convenient.


What are the limitations of systematic sampling?

could lead to under/over representation