Review of autonomics and hypothalamus Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Review of autonomics and hypothalamus Deck (60)
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1

blood flow to the skin as a (blank) reflex

local

2

A hot compress on a small area of skin causes local (blank) and (blank)

vasodilation and sweating

3

The reflex contraction of the bladder in response to stretch is another example of a (blank) reflex

local

4

The (blank) is a prominent intermediary for many local reflexes.

nucleus solitarius

5

What can exert its influences by way of direct connections to preganglionic neurons or through other brainstem reticular nuclei?

nucleus solitarious

6

What kidn of effects can the nucleus solitarious have?

hormonal and behavioral responses through the brainstem or visceral motor responses through the preganglionic neurons

7

What does the hypothalamus do?

receives input about the state of th ebody and reads thinks like body temp, levels of fatty acids and glucose, length of day, and levels of circulating hormones.

8

The hypothalamus, after receiving info about temp, FA, glucose, hormones, what does it do with this info?

has both direct and indirect connections to motor neurons by way of neural and humoral pathways

9

What happens if you cut the descending tract of the hypothalamus and reticular formation?

you get unregulated autonomic reflex
(autonomic dysreflexia/hypereflexia, neurogenic bladder, hyperthermia)

10

How do you get bladder contraction and voiding?

hypothalamus-> midbrain PAG-> pontine micturation center-> parasympathetics and somatic motor neurons

11

Are paraysmpathetics cholinergic or adrenergic?

cholinergic

12

Are preganglionic sympathetics cholinergic and adrenergic?

cholinergic

13

Are postganglionic sympathetics with the exception of sweat glands are (blank).

adrenergic

14

Massive response as seen in elevated body temp is via (blank)

cortical control (all preganglionic involved in sweating and vasodilation will be involved)

15

If you cut all cortical control to the bladder, will the bladder still contract?

yes via the local reflex (neurogenic reflex of bladder)

16

Which 2 cranial nerves have a lot of input to the nucleus solitarius?

CN 9 and CN 10

17

What is the pathway that runs from the brainstem to the cortex and is it myelinated?

medial forebrain bundles
it is unmyelinated and does NOT go to thalamus

18

What is associated with control of autonomics and uses monoamines as NT's (dopamine, serotonin etc.)?

medial forebrain bundles

19

What is the reflex pathway for viscera?

visceral sensory input to preganglionic neurons

20

In order to reach the cortex, the nucleus solitarius must communicate to the (blank) or (blank)

hypothalamus
parabrachial nucles

21

WHat will happen to your bladder if you lose your cortex?

bladder will still contract but not at right time

22

What will happen to your bladder if you lose the hypothalamus?

bladder will contract but will be activated by ANY stretch

23

What will happen to your bladder if you have a lesion at the lower center (LMN)?

the bladder will no longer contract (flaccid atonic bladder) and will cause retention and at some point the bladder will have so much pressure that their will be dribbling

24

Damage to UMN results in (blank) bladder. Damage to LMN results in (blank) bladder.

reflexive (spastic)
flaccid or atonic

25

What are the three afferents to the hypothalamus?

hippocampus, amygdala, brainstem

26

What is involved in the consolidation of memories?

fornix, hippocampus and mammilary bodies.

27

What gives affarents to the fornix to the mamillary bodies?

hippocampus

28

How does the amygdala transmit its affarents to the hypothalamus?

via the stria terminalis which passes up behing the thalamus and goes to the anterior nuclear group of the hypothalamus

29

How does the cortex and brainstem send afferents to the hypothalamus?

Via the MFB
a birdirectional pathway that runs from brainstem through the hypothalamus to the medial and frontal cortex
(MOST IMPORTANT)

30

What is significant about the MFB?

it can bypass the thalamus