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Flashcards in Review pre-midterm Deck (69):
1

Aberrant parasite

Parasite in an unusual location

2

Anthelmintics

Compound or drug that can be used to kill helminthes, such as nematodes, trematodes, cestodes, acanthocephalans, pentastomes, and hirudineans.

3

Endoparasitism

Parasites infecting the insides of a host

4

Infection

Parasitism inside a host (endoparasite)

5

Infestation

Parasitism outside a host (e.g. ectoparasite on skin)

6

Alimentary Canal

GI tract of a parasite

7

Prepatent period

Period between infection with a parasite until parasitism can be diagnosed (e.g. heartworm infection has a prepatent period of about 6 mos)

8

Rostellum

Anchorlike organelle on a cestode

9

Operculated ovum

Parasite egg, oval-shaped with "doors" (e.g. trichuris vulpis)

10

Schistosome

A blood fluke that inhabits the blood vasculature of its definitive host.

11

Name the 5 types of symbiotic relationships

Predator-prey
Commensalism
Phoresis
Mutualism
Parasitism

12

Predator-prey example

Lion eats zebra

13

Commensalism example

Shark carries around remora; neither is harmed but remora benefits

14

Phoresis example

Face fly carries pinkeye bacterium from cow to cow

15

Mutualism example

Bacterium inside rumen of cow; both benefit

16

Parasitism example

Heartworm infection in dog; dog is harmed

17

Difference between infection and infestation

*Infection:
Dog is infected with heartworm (infection = inside of body)
*Infestation:
Dog is infested with fleas (infestation = outside of body)

18

Difference between facultative and obligatory parasites.

*Facultative:
"Free living" parasite does not have to lead a parasitic existence but can, if conditions are right or the right host comes by
*Obligatory:
MUST lead a parasitic life, such as the heartworm, for example

19

Difference between homoxenous and euryxenous parasites.

*Homoxenous:
Has only one definite host; also called monoxenous
*Euryxenous:
Has several definite hosts

20

List 7 Linnaean classifications in order

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

21

In what kingdom do most parasites of domestic animals belong?

Animalia

22

Flatworms belong in what phylum?

Platyhelminthes

23

Roundworms belong in what phylum?

Nematoda

24

Thorny-headed worms belong in what phylum?

Acanthocephala

25

Spiders and mites belong in what phylum?

Arthropoda

26

The kingdom, phylum and class for tapeworms is?

Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Eucestodes (true tapeworms) or cotyloda (pseudotapeworms)

27

Since tapeworm infections are treated similarily, why is it important to identify which type of tapeworm infection an animal has?

In order to prevent reinfection as their transmission varies (e.g. Dipylidium = ingestion of flea; Taenia = ingestion of road kill).

28

Trichuris vulpis

Whipworm of dog

29

What is the intermediate host for Dipylidium caninum?

The flea

30

Describe the life cycle of D. immitis.

- Mosquito bites infected dog
- Mosquito transport microfilariae
- Infected mosquito bites healthy dog and transmits microfilariae
- Inside dog, microfilariae travel to heart, where they develop into adults inside righ ventricle and pulmonary artery, eventually killing dog

31

List three morphologic features of nematodes

Elongated
Round in cross-section
Segmented

32

What is the common name for Dioctyphyma renale?

Giant kidney worm of dog

33

Where would Dracunculus insignis be found (location of adult)?

Guinea worm of dogs
Found in skin of host

34

Difference between vermicide and vermifuge

*Vermicide:
Kills the parasite
*Vermifuge:
Paralyzes the parasite

35

Which of the nematodes are found in the cecum and colon?

Whipworms

36

Why is it important to understand the lifecycles of parasites?

In order to come up with the best and most effective way to kill all stages and therefore erradicate the parasite.

37

Cestodes (common name)

Tapeworms

38

Scolex

Head of tapeworm

39

Proglottid

Segment (compartment) of tapeworm; they are either immature, mature or gravid (containing hexacanths)

40

Cotyloda

Pseudotapeworm

41

Using a microscope, how can you tell the difference between Dipylidium spp and Taenia spp?

*Dipylidium spp:
thin shell with multiple hexacanths inside, two pores
*Taenia spp:
slightly thicker shell with one hexacanth inside

42

What is the easiest, quickest, most cost effective way to rule out Dipylidium spp on a dog or cat?

Check for flea dirt; if you can't find any, it's most likely NOT Dipylidium spp.

43

Name a common oral Tx for cestodes.

Praziquantel
Fenbendazole

44

Where can you find the germinal or growth region on a tapeworm?

Behind the scolex at the neck.

45

What is the intermediate host for Acanthocephalans?

Dung beetle

46

How many acanthocephalans are of concern/importance in VM?

Two.
1) M. hirudinaceus
2) Oncicola canis

47

Segmented worms belong to the phylum?

Annelida (e.g. hirudinea - leeches)

48

Define hirudin.

Potent anti-coagulant with 64 amino acids secreted by leeches.

49

Hirudo medicinalis

European medicinal leech

50

In the bacterial name Borrelia burgdorferi, what does burgdorferi represent?
a. Species
b. Genus
c. Family
d. Class

a. Species

51

Which of the following is an important function of bacterial flagella?
a. Attachment
b. Locomotion
c. DNA replication
d. Ion transport

b. Locomotion

52

Enterobacteriaceae are found in what part of the body?
a. Lungs
b. Intestines
c. Skin
d. Stomach

b. Intestines

53

Kittens are most likely to get roundworms (Toxocara) by what route?
a. Fecal-oral
b. Transplacental
c. Transmammary
d. Skin penetration

c. Transmammary

54

A route of infection by hookworms that is not shared by roundworms is
a. Ingestion of infective stage
b. Transplacental
c. Transmammary
d. Skin penetration

d. Skin penetration

55

In appearance, hookworm ova resemble ... ova.
a. Strongyle
b. Whipworm
c. Roundworm
d. Pinworm

a. Strongyle

56

The intermediate host for heartworm is the
a. Flea
b. Rodent
c. Mosquito
d. Snail

c. Mosquito

57

The roundworm of horses is
a. Strongylus spp
b. Oxyuris spp
c. Anoplocephala spp
d. Parascaris spp

d. Parascaris spp

58

The difference in appearance between small and large strongyle ova in horses is
a. size
b. shape
c. color
d. none; they look alike

d. none; they look alike

59

Ruminant ova such as Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, and Cooperia resemble canine
a. Roundworms
b. Hookworms
c. Tapeworms
d. Whipworms

b. Hookworms

60

Which of the following parasite ova is collected using a cellophane tape method?
a. Ancylostoma
b. Dirofilaria
c. Dipylidium
d. Oxyuris

d. Oxyuris

61

A buffy coat examination for microfilaria can be made in conjunction with what other hematologic procedure?
a. Leukocyte count
b. Packed cell volume (PCV)
c. Differential count
d. Hemoglobin

b. Packed cell volume (PCV)

62

A 4 year old dog has chronic cough and the veterinarian has included Filaroides on his list of possible diagnoses. What is the common name of this parasite?
a. Tapeworm
b. Roundworm
c. Whipworm
d. Lungworm

d. Lungworm

63

Which of the following nematodes are characterized by an ovoid egg with a thin shell and a morulated embryo?
a) Toxascaris leonine
b) Toxocara canis
c) Trichuris vulpis
d) Ancylstoma caninum

d) Ancylstoma caninum

64

What parasite can cause blockage of the cranial mesenteric artery in horses?
a. Parascaris equi
b. Oxyuris equi
c. Strongyloides westeri
d. Strongylus vulgaris

d. Strongylus vulgaris

65

Visceral larval migrans is caused by the larvae of
a. Ancylostoma caninum
b. Isospora canis
c. Toxocara canis
d. Taenia canis

c. Toxocara canis

66

What small animal parasite ova resemble strongyle ova in horses?
a. Ascarid
b. Whipworm
c. Hookworm
d. Coccidia

c. Hookworm
(a. Ascarid - roundworm; b. Whipworm - operculated egg; d. Coccidia - smaller than strongyle ova)

67

What parasite causes blood loss, especially in young animals?
a. Roundworm
b. Tapeworm
c. Heartworm
d. Hookworm

d. Hookworm

68

What adult parasite would be described as having a slender anterior end with its mouth at the tip and a thickened posterior extremity?
a. Heartworm
b. Whipworm
c. Tapeworm
d. Hookworm

b. Whipworm

69

Trematodes are
a. Tapeworms
b. Flukes
c. Roundworms
d. Thorny-headed worms

b. Flukes
(a. tapeworms = cestodes; c. roundworms = nematodes; d. thorny-headed worms = acanthocephalans)