Rob's fungal immunity: last 16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rob's fungal immunity: last 16 Deck (16)
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1

Give examples of aspergillu environmental organisms

Aspergillus niger Aspergillus fumigatus Inhaled leading to fungal allergic airway disease. Spores get into lungs really easily

2

T/F people with asthma due to fungi like aspergillus are getting it due to immunosupression

F they are getting it because of an exaggerated immune response

3

Outline a type of fungal disease fo each category of hypersensitivity reacton

Type 1 (IgE/histamine mediated) --> allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, ABPA Type 2 --> unknown Type III--> hypersensitivity pneumoniits/aspergilloma Type IV --> hypersensitivity pneumonitis

4

T/f there is just one allergen in fungi that causes hypersensitive response

F

5

Outline why fungal allergens are confusing for immune system

Cross reactivtiy between candida allegens in the gut and breathed in allergens in the lung (immune system doesn't know which it is responding to) And Because they are eukaryotic, some allergens from fngi have promoted autoimmue response against self antigens in the lung

6

What leads to allergic and what leads to invasive fungal disease

Wheter host response is ineffective or exaggerated

7

What type of hypersensitivity reactions are occurring in fungal infections

I, III and IV

8

What is the primary driver of allergic fungal disease

Aspergillus

9

What is ABPA

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosus which causes IgE response and is a form of bronchiectasis High eosinophil levels in peripheral blood Loads of mucus Overexagerated immune response

10

Which conditions presispose to ABPA

Asthma or cystic fibrosis

11

Radiological features of ABPA

• Dilated bronchi with thick walls • Ring or linear opacities • Upper or central region predeliction • Proximal bronchiectasis • Lobar collapse due to mucous impaction (hyper dense mucus) • Fibrotic scarring

12

What happens to size of airways with ABPA

DILATION (this is bronchiectasis) Bronchiectasis is a long-term condition where the airways of the lungs become abnormally widened, leading to a build-up of excess mucus that can make the lungs more vulnerable to infection Because of mucus plugging

13

Management of ABPA

Corticosteroids Itraconazole for steroid sparing effect (a triazole) Recombinant IgE monoclonal antibodies

14

What is an anti-IgE antibody

Omalizumab

15

What is hypersensitivity pneumonitis

Fibrotic lung disease Evidence for fungal sensitisation

16

What is diagnosis of fungal hypersensitivity driven by

Diagnosis driven by skin test, IgE and IgM in clinical relevant populations