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Flashcards in NPR:last minute for stupid q's Deck (36)
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1

bacteria and viral evaion has been done for this

2

 name bacteria for two types of enterotoxin-based diseases

1. Infectious diarrhea: Vibrio cholera, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Campylobacter jejuni 2. Food poisoning Bacillus cereus or Staphylcoccus aureus

(GI TRACT)

3

Bacteria that produce pyrogenic exotoxins(Stimulate cytokine release)

Staphylcoccus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes

4

Examples of miscellaneous exotoxin, and what is different about them

specific to a certain bacterium and/or function not well understood Bacillus anthracis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae

5

Communicable diseases occurring in Europe

1) Respiratory tract infections 2) Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and blood-borne viruses 3) Food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses 4) Emerging and vector-borne diseases 5) Vaccine-preventable diseases 6) Antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections

6

Give example of BACTERIAL resp tract infections

Legionnaires’ disease (legionellosis) Legionella pneumophila (Gram -) Tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Gram +)

7

Success rate of treatments for TB

72% success rate of treatment of new cases Treatment success rate for second infection is 54% Multi drug resistant (MDR) treatment success rate in is 32%

8

List common bacterial STI

Chlamydia trachomatis infection Gonorrhoea Syphilis

9

Most common food- and waterborne diseases

Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter sp. mostely C. jejuni) Salmonellosis (- Salmonella sp.) Cholera (Vibrio cholerae) Listeriosis (Listeria monocytogenes)

10

T/F campylobacter sp. (mainly C jejuni) is usually a cause of epidemics What is the highest risk group

F Usually sporadic cases and not outbreaks Small children 0-4 years – highest risk group

11

Risk group for listeria monocytogenes

Risk group immuno-compromised, elderly, pregnant and their fetus

12

What are the bacterial emerging and vector borne diseases and hat are they caused by

Plague (Yersinia pestis; Gram-) Q fever (Coxiella burnetti; Gram –)

13

Which vaccine preventable diseases are bacteria

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus

14

What are these vaccine preventable disease cause by and what gram type: Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus

Haemophilus influenzae (-ve) Clostridium diphtheriae (Gram +) Neisseria meningitidis (gram -ve) Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram + (Bordetella pertussis Gram -) (Clostridium tetani Gram +)

15

Which pathogens ar ea major problem in hospitals Gram neg or pos

Enterococcus faecium (+ve) Staphylococcus aureus (+ve) Clostridium difficle (+ve) Acinetobacter baumanii (-ve_ Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-ve) Enterobacteriaceae (-ve)

16

Give examples of Enterobacteriaceae

E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp.

17

State the drug resistance of the following Enterococcus faecium (+ve) Staphylococcus aureus (+ve) Clostridium difficle (+ve) Acinetobacter baumanii (-ve_ Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-ve) Enterobacteriaceae (-ve): -E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp.

Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin resistance) Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant - MRSA) Clostridium difficile (can establish infection because of previous antibiotic treatment) Acinetobacter baumanii (highly drug resistant) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (multi drug resistant i.e fluoroquinolone-resistant) Enterobacteriaceae pathogenic E. coli (multi drug resistant) Klebsiella pneumoniae (multi drug resistant) Enterobacter species (multi drug resistant)

18

Which antibiotics is E. coli resistant to in many countries?

Cephalosporins

19

State the target proteins and the method of resistance to the following classes of antibiotics:
a. Cephalosporins
b. Carbapenems
c. Methicillin
d. Vancomycin

a. Cephalosporins  
Target: Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)
Resistance: Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) 
b. Carbapenems
Target: PBP 
Resistance: Carbapenemase enzymes 
c. Methicillin 
Target: PBP 
Resistance: alternative target (PBP2A), which has low affinity for methicillin and can function in its presence
d. Vancomycin 
Target: peptidoglycan precursor  
Resistance: synthesis of a different peptidoglycan precursor 

20

Which antibiotics is E. coli still sensitive to?

Carbapenems 

21

State the drug resistance of the following Enterococcus faecium (+ve) Staphylococcus aureus (+ve) Clostridium difficle (+ve) Acinetobacter baumanii (-ve_ Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-ve) Enterobacteriaceae (-ve): -E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp.

Enterococcus faecium (vancomycin resistance) Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant - MRSA) Clostridium difficile (can establish infection because of previous antibiotic treatment) Acinetobacter baumanii (highly drug resistant) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (multi drug resistant i.e fluoroquinolone-resistant) Enterobacteriaceae pathogenic E. coli (multi drug resistant) Klebsiella pneumoniae (multi drug resistant) Enterobacter species (multi drug resistant)

22

Give examples of Enterobacteriaceae

E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp.

23

Which pathogens ar ea major problem in hospitals Gram neg or pos

Enterococcus faecium (+ve) Staphylococcus aureus (+ve) Clostridium difficle (+ve) Acinetobacter baumanii (-ve_ Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-ve) Enterobacteriaceae (-ve)

24

What are these vaccine preventable disease cause by and what gram type: Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus

Haemophilus influenzae (-ve) Clostridium diphtheriae (Gram +) Neisseria meningitidis (gram -ve) Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram + (Bordetella pertussis Gram -) (Clostridium tetani Gram +)

25

Which vaccine preventable diseases are bacteria

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus

26

What are the bacterial emerging and vector borne diseases and hat are they caused by

Plague (Yersinia pestis; Gram-) Q fever (Coxiella burnetti; Gram –)

27

How do HSV 1 prevent interfere with cellular immunity

HSV ICP47 blocks access of the processed peptide to TAP

28

How can adenovirus effect cellular immnity

Adenovirus E3-19K prevents recruitment of TAP to tapasin and also retains MHC in the endoplasmic reticulum

29

How does EBV evade cellular immunity

EBV EBNA1 cannot be processed by the proteasome so the viral protein cannot be chopped up and put into the ER so it cannot be presented in MHC class 1 to activate T cell

30

How does CMV evade cellular immunity

CMV US6 stops ATP binding to TAP preventing translocation .CMV US3 binds tapasin and prevent peptides being loaded to MHC (i.e. cuts off the energy to TAP so peptides can't get into the ER and thus cannot be associated with the MHC molecules and cannot be presented to the T cells)