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structural difference in organisation of cell contents between bacteria and eukaryotic cells

Bacteria do not have organelles (different to eukaryotes)


What kind of appendages coul dbacteria have? Does this affec virulence

Hypha/stalks Yes may do


Examples of miscellaneous exotoxin, and what is different about them

specific to a certain bacterium and/or function not well understood Bacillus anthracis and Corynebacterium diphtheriae


Differentiate gram positive and gram negative

Gram +ve= big cell wall, 1 lipid bilayer Gram -ve= small cell wall, 2 lipid bilayers


Differentiate endotoxin shock and septic shock

different effectors molecules in Gram-positive bacteria or even fungi can trigger this adverse immune response – so the term septic shock is inclusive (of endotoxin shock and other shocks too)


What usually causes haemolytic-uraemic syndrome

Shiga toxin producing E. coli strain


What 2 plasmids are contained in EAEC

pAA-type plasmids - contains the aggregative adhesion fimbrial operon ESBL plasmid - harbors the genes encoding for extended-spectrum b-lactamases (i.e. beta lactam resistant)


What happens to the cell when AFF binds

Lead to the disruption of actin cytoskeleton leading to exfoliations


Communicable diseases occurring in Europe

1) Respiratory tract infections 2) Sexually transmitted infections, including HIV and blood-borne viruses 3) Food- and waterborne diseases and zoonoses 4) Emerging and vector-borne diseases 5) Vaccine-preventable diseases 6) Antimicrobial resistance and healthcare-associated infections


What is latent TB

M. tuberculosis can enter a dormant state Latent TB - evidence of infection by immunological tests but no clinical signs and symptoms of active disease


What is most common STI in europe



What other disease can Chlamydia trachomatis cause

Other parts of the world --> Eye infection Blindness


T/f salmonella sp. is associated with outbreaks



What are the bacterial emerging and vector borne diseases and hat are they caused by

Plague (Yersinia pestis; Gram-) Q fever (Coxiella burnetti; Gram –)


Which vaccine preventable diseases are bacteria

Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus


What are these vaccine preventable disease cause by and what gram type: Invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus Diphtheria Invasive meningococcal disease Invasive pneumococcal disease Pertussis Tetanus

Haemophilus influenzae (-ve) Clostridium diphtheriae (Gram +) Neisseria meningitidis (gram -ve) Streptococcus pneumoniae Gram + (Bordetella pertussis Gram -) (Clostridium tetani Gram +)


Which pathogens ar ea major problem in hospitals Gram neg or pos

Enterococcus faecium (+ve) Staphylococcus aureus (+ve) Clostridium difficle (+ve) Acinetobacter baumanii (-ve_ Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-ve) Enterobacteriaceae (-ve)


Outline pathogenic e. coli

Most frequent cause of bacteraemia by a Gram-negative bacterium Most frequent cause of community and hospital acquired UTI


Which antibiotics is E. coli still sensitive to?



State the target proteins and the method of resistance to the following classes of antibiotics:
a. Cephalosporins
b. Carbapenems
c. Methicillin
d. Vancomycin

a. Cephalosporins  
Target: Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)
Resistance: Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) 
b. Carbapenems
Target: PBP 
Resistance: Carbapenemase enzymes 
c. Methicillin 
Target: PBP 
Resistance: alternative target (PBP2A), which has low affinity for methicillin and can function in its presence
d. Vancomycin 
Target: peptidoglycan precursor  
Resistance: synthesis of a different peptidoglycan precursor