Treatment of uncomplicated and complicated malaria
Uncomplocated: -chloroquine Severe: -Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) for P. Falciparum
Diagnosis of malaria
blood film, Giemsa stained or rapid antigen staining test
Toxoplasmosis infection type and route of infection. Who is it a problem in
Toxoplasma gondii • eating undercooked meat of animals harboring tissue cysts • consuming food or water contaminated with cat feces • by contaminated environmental samples • blood transfusion • transplacentally from mother to fetus. PROBLEM IN PREGNANT WOMEN AND IMMUNOSUPPRESSED PEOPL
What is effect of toxopasma gondii in immunocompromised people
develop central nervous system disease, brain lesions, pneumonitis or retinochoroiditis among other risks.
How is toxoplasma gondii diagnosed
What does cryptosporidium cause
diarrhea, fever, nausea, vomiting in humans
What is the typical patient for cryptosporidiu
very common in HIV+ patients presenting with diarrhea.
Diagnosis and treatment for cryptosporidium
Diagnosis: stool examination. Treatment: fluid rehydration.
Example of ciliates
Balantidium coli =Balantidiasis
Reservoir for balantidium coli
pigs, rodents, primates Worldwide distruution
Symptoms for balantidium coli
Most people infected with Balantidium coli => no symptoms. Immunocompromised patients may experience more severe signs and symptoms: persistent diarrhea, dysentery, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. If left untreated, perforation of the colon can occur.
Diagnosis of balantidium coli? is it treatable
Example of flagellates
Giardia lamblia (Giardiasis) Trichomonas Leishmania
How common is giardia lamblia- where is it found
Giardiasis: commonest, globally distributed, water-borne protozoal infection.
What is a trophozoite
a growing stage in the life cycle of some sporozoan parasites, when they are absorbing nutrients from the host.
Outline life cycle of giardia lamblia How can they be excluded from drinking water
Flagellated trophozooites attach by their suckers to surface of the duodenal or jejunal mucosa Ovoid cysts are able to survive standard chlorination procedures, filtration is required to exclude them from drinking water