Rx rxns Day 9.3 / Day 11.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Rx rxns Day 9.3 / Day 11.1 Deck (47):
1

What drugs cause atropine-like side effects?

(Atropine-like means anti-cholinergic)
TCAs
Low-potency, Typical Neuroleptics (theoridozine, clorpromazine)
1st gen anti-histamines (diphenhydramine, ciproheptadine, hydroxazine)- so don't give to elderly bc can cause delerium
Amantidine (for parkinsons)

2

What drugs cause coronary vasospasm?

Cocaine, Amphetamines (meth)
Sumatriptan and Ergotamines

3

How do sumatriptan and ergotamine work, what do they do, and when are they contraindicated?

Used for headaches, work by causing vasoconstriction.
Contraindicated in Prinz-Metal angina or in CAD bc they can cause coronary vasospasm.

4

What drugs cause cutaneous flushing?

VANC:
Vancomycin
Adenosine
Niacin
Ca2+ chnl blockers (esp dihydropyridine- work at vasculature, not in heart)

5

Why does the body flush so much with adenosine?

Body sees adenosine as meaning no ATP (aka ATP w/o any phosphates) so it is a really potent vasodilator.

6

What drugs cause dilated cardiomyopathy?

Doxorubicin (adriamycin)
Daunorubicin

these are anti-cancer drugs- they generate free radicals and cause decreased DNA replication
used for Hodgkin's lymphomas, also myelomas, sarcomas, solid tumors (breast, ovary, lung)

7

What drugs cause Torsades de pointes?

Anything that prolongs the QT interval:
Class III anti-arrhy (sotalol) (K+ blocker)
Class IA anti-arrhy (quinidine) (Na+ blocker)
Cisapride
Macrolides
Haloperidol, Risperidone
Chlorquine, mefloquine
Methadone
HIV protease inhibitors

8

What is the treatment for torsades de pointes?

Mg2+

9

What drugs cause agranulocytosis

Clozapine
Carbamazapine
Colchicine
PTU (propylthiouracil) and methemazole (anti-thyroid)
Dapsone

10

What drugs cause aplastic anemia?

Chloramphenicol
Benzene
NSAIDs
PTU and methemazole (anti-thyroid)

11

What drug causes direct coombs-positive hemolytic anemia?

Methyldopa (used for HTN, esp in prego)

12

What drug causes grey baby syndrome?

Chloramphenicol

13

What drugs cause hemolysis in G6PD deficient pts?

hemolysis IS PAIN:
INH
Sulfonamides
Primaquine
Aspirin (high dose)
Ibuprofen
Nitrofurantois (UTI cystitis)

also
Dapsone
Napthalene
Fava beans

Basically, anything that increases oxidative dmg to RBCs.

14

What drugs cause megaloblastic anemia?

PMS is a blast!
Phenytoin
Methotrexate
Sulfa drugs

15

Drugs that cause thrombolytic complications (DVTs, PEs)

OCPs (estrogens, progesterones)
esp don't give to >35yo smokers.

Also, if you give OCPs to women who have migranes w aura, you will increase their risk of stroke.

16

Drugs that cause thrombocytopenia

Heparin (heparin-induced thrombocytopenia)
H2 blockers (cimetidine)

17

Drugs that cause cough

ACE inhibitors (-pril)
note: ARBs like losartan do NOT cause cough

18

Why do ACE inhibitors cause cough?

Bradykinin is a vasodilator
ACE usu breaks down bradykinin
If you're on an ACE inhibitor, you won't break down bradykinin, so there will be lots of excess vasodilation- and this will cause cough.
It will also cause angioedema.

19

What drugs cause pulmonary fibrosis?

It's hard to BLAB with pulm fibrosis:
BLeomycin (for testicular cancer, Hodgkin's)
Amiodarone (class III anti-arrhy)
Bulsulfan (for CML)

20

What drugs cause acute cholestatic hepatits?

Macrolides (but actually ok in prego)
Estolate

21

What drugs cause focal to massive hepatic necrosis?

Halothane
Valproic acid
Acetaminophen
Amanita phalloides (a mushroom)

22

What drugs cause Pseudomembranous Colitis?

Clindamycin, ampicillin
But any abx really

23

Withdrawal of what drug causes tertiary adrenocortical insufficiency?

Glucocorticoid withdrawal (HPA suppression)

24

What drugs cause gynecomastia?

Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers:
Spironolactone
Digitalis
Citmetidine (H2 blocker)
Alcohol (chronic use)
Ketaconazole (anti-fungal)

also, estrogens (duh)
and marajuana, heroin, psychoactives

25

What are the non-drug causes of gynecomastia?

Results from hyper-estrogenism, Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY), or drugs

Hyper estrogenism can be caused by cirrhosis, testicular tumor, puberty, old age.

26

What drugs cause hot flashes

Tamoxifen and clomiphene (SERMs)

27

What drugs cause hypothyroidism?

Lithium
Amiodarone (anti-arrhythmic class III K+)

28

Amiloride

K+ sparing diuretic.

Don't get confused with Amiodarone, which is a K+ chnl blocker class III anti-arrhythmic.

Urine "rides" out.
"Drone" (darone) of the heart beating.

29

What drug causes gingival hyperplasia?

Phenytoin

30

What drugs cause gout?

Furosemide, thiadizes (both are diuretics)

31

What drugs cause osteoporosis?

Heparin
Corticosteroids (if taking more than 3 months, need to be on bisphosphonate)

32

What drugs cause photosensitivity?

SAT
Sulfonamides
Amiodarone (anti-arr)
Tetracyclines

33

What drugs cause rash (SJS)?

Seizure/Sulfa/Cillin:
Ethosuxamide
Lamotrigine
Carbamazepine
Phenobarbital
Phenytoin
Sulfa drugs
Penicillin
Allopurinol

34

SLE-like syndrome (drug-induced SLE)

SHIPP:
Sulfonamides
Hydralazine
INH
Procainamide
Phenytoin

With drug-induced SLE, have anti-histone Ab.
It's reversible w removal of drug

35

What drug causes tendonitis, tendon rupture, and cartilage dmg in kids

Fluroquinolones

36

What drug causes Fanconi's syndrome (proximal tubule reabsorption defect)?

Expired tetracycline

Fanconi's syndrome can also be caused by heavy metal exposure and Wilson's dz (copper accumulation)

37

What drugs cause interstital nephritis?

Methicillin
NSAIDs
Furosemide

38

What drugs cause hemorrhagic cystitis?

Cyclophosphamide
Ifosfamide

These drugs make toxic metabolites. Can prevent hemorrhagic cystitis by co-administration w mesna, which binds to the toxic metabolites.

39

What is cinchonism?

Dizziness, headache, vision changes, and tinnitis

40

What drugs cause cinchonism?

Quinidine (Class 1A anti-arr)
Quinine (anti-malarial)

41

What drugs cause nephrogenic diabetes insipidus?

Lithium
Demeclocycline

Treat w hydrochlorothiazide, and if lithium-induced, make sure to add amiloride.

42

What drugs cause Parkinson-like syndrome (reversible)?

High potency neuroleptics
Haloperidol
Chlorpromazine
Reserpine
Metoclopramide
MPTP

MPTP is a toxic metabolite generated when making illegal homemade meperidine (demerol)

43

What drugs cause seizures?

Buproprion
Imipenem/Cilastatin
INH
Evening primrose
Enflurane

also benzo withdrawal, alcohol withdrawal

44

What drugs cause tardive dyskinesia?

High potency antipsychotics (the typical ones: haloperidol + the -azines)

45

What drugs cause disulfiram-like rxn?

Metronidazole
some Cephalosporins
1st gen sulfonylureas
Procarbazine
Disulfiram

46

What drugs cause nephrotoxocity and neurotoxicity?

Polymyxins (abx for gram neg- disrupt cell mbrs)

47

What drugs cause nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity?

Aminoglycosides
Vancomycin
Loop diuretics
Cisplatin