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Flashcards in 5.3 Micro Deck (30):
0

Mycoses a/w birds

Histoplasmosis (bird, bat droppings)
Cryptococcus neoformans (pigeons)
Chlamydia psitacci (parrots)
Avian influenza
West Nile Virus

2

What pts commonly get cryptococcal meningitis?

AIDS pts

3

What is candida intertrigo?

Candida rash under breasts, in skin folds of obese pts

4

What opportunistic fungal infection can penetrate the cribiform plate?

Mucor and Rhizopus
Get rhinocerebral and frontal lobe abscesses, can be deadly.

5

Why are mucor and rhizopus mostly in DKA pts?

proliferates in blood vessel walls when there is excess ketone and glucose available.

(also common in leukemia pts, not for this reason)

6

Onychomycosis

Fungal infection of nail bed
Caused by Tinea ungium
Rx griseofulvin (takes longer), terbinafin

7

What mycoses might be seen in spelunkers?

Histoplasmosis (found in bird/bat droppings)

8

Arthroconidia

Barrel-shaped form contained in Cocci
Some barrels are empty, allowing cocci to be light enough to be carried in air.

9

What causes cauliflower skin lesions?

Blastomycosis

10

List the antifungal meds

Amphotericin B
Nystatin
Azoles
Flucytosine
Caspofungin
Terbinafine
Griseofulvin

11

What antifungal should be used for bad systemic infections?

Amphotericin B

12

What is used to treat Sporothrix?

Itraconazole

13

How do the azoles inhibit fungi?

Inhibit fungal ergosterol synth by inhibiting the P450 enz that converts lanosterol to ergosterol

14

What hormones do azoles inhibit?

Corticosteroids, testosterone
(can cause gynecomastia)

15

Gardnerella vaginalis vs Trichomonas vaginalis

Gardnerella = gram-neg bacteria causing vaginosis (not STD necessarily). Fishy, clue cells, not painful.

Trichomonas- protozoan (triangle-shaped) causing vaginitis- foul-smelling green discharge. Itching/burning.

Treat both with metronidazole.

16

Most common protozoal infection in US

Trichomonas vaginalis or Giardia

17

Which protozoa causes liver dmg?

Entamoeba histolytica- causes liver abscess.

18

Malaria life cycle: looks like a diamond ring:

Trophozoite in RBCs

19

Malaria life cycle: Ruptures cell host

Merozoite
Rupture causes fever cycles

20

Malaria life cycle: replicates intracellularly

Schizont

21

Malaria: cell form injected by Anopheles

Sporozoite
(think of mosq injecting spores)

22

Malaria: banana shaped cell

Gamateocyte of plasmodium falciparum

23

White patches on sides of tongues

might be candida, but if it's on sides, may be Oral Hairy Leukoplakia- opportunistic infection by EBV!

24

Causes endocarditis in IV drug users

Candida albicans
(or S. epidermiditis)

25

Spaghetti and meatball appearance

Tinea versicolor

26

What are fungal cell walls made of?

Ergosterol (fungi equivalent of cholesterol).
Ergosterol is inhibited by Terbinafine or the -azoles

27

Cause of bacterial dysentery vs amoebic dysentery

Bacterial: shigella
Amoebic: Entamoeba histolytica

28

In both strongyloides and ascaris, the eggs are coughed up/swallowed. How do they get into the body to begin with?

Stronglyoides: larvae in soil penetrate skin
Ascaris lumbricoides: eggs are ingested from contaminated food

29

Worm in undercooked pork

Taenia solium
swiss cheese appearance of brain- can get seizures, altered mental status, coma, death

30

Infection Leads to squamous cell carcinoma of bladder

Schisto hematobium