Day 7.1 Cardio Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Day 7.1 Cardio Deck (131):
1

4 drugs used to treat tinea capitis or pubis

Pyrmethrin
Pyrethin
Lindane (but it's neurotoxic)
Melathium

2

Organism in animal urine

Leptospira
Hanta virus (rat/mouse urine)

3

Drug w best effect on:
HDL
LDL
TGs

Raises HDL: Niacin
Lowers LDL: Statins (HMG coA reductase inhib)
Lowers TGs: Fibrates (2nd- omega3 FA)

4

Murmur: mitral/tricuspid regurg (MR/TR)

Heard from S1 all the way to S2.
Holocystic, high-pitched "blowing murmur"

Mitral: loudest at apex, radiates to axilla
Enhanced by things that increase TPR (squatting, hand grip) or by increased LA return (expiration)

Tricuspid: loudest at tricuspid area, radiates to right sternal border
Enhanced by maneuvers that increase RA return (inspiration)

5

What are the causes of mitral and tricuspid regurg?

MR:
ischemic heart dz
mitral valve prolapse
LV dilation
rheumatic fever
endocarditis

TR:
RV dilation
Endocarditis
Rheumatic fever

6

Murmur: Aortic stenosis

B/t ejection click and S2 (ejection click is shortly after S1)
Crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur after ejection click. (ED is d/t abrupt halting of valve leaflets)

LV prs >> aortic prs during systole
Radiates to carotids/apex
Heard in aortic area
"Pulsus parvus et tardus"- pulses are weak compared to heart sounds. Can lead to syncope.

7

Causes of aortic stenosis

Age-related calcific aortic stenosis
Bicuspid aortic valve

8

Murmur: VSD

Heard from S1 all the way to S2
Holocystolic, harsh sounding murmur
Loudest at tricuspid area

9

Murmur: mitral prolapse

From mid-systolic click to S2. (MC is halfway thru S1 and S2)
Late systolic crecendo murmur w midsystolic click. (MC is due to sudden tensing of chordae tendineae)
Most frequent valvular lesion
Loudest at S2 (bc crescendos up to it)
Usu benign
Can predispose to infective endocarditis (only if there is mitral regurg assoc w it. give abx before dental procedures)
Enhanced by maneuvers that increase TPR (squatting, hand grip)

10

What can cause mitral prolapse?

Myxomatous degeneration
Rheumatic fever
Chordae rupture

11

Murmur: Aortic regurg

Starts at S2
Immediate high-pitched "blowing" diastolic murmur
Wide pulse prs when chronic
Can px w bounding pulses and head throbbing

12

Cause of aortic regurg

Aortic root dilation (syphilis, Marfan's)
Bicuspid aortic valve (but this is more characteristic of stenosis, not regurg)
Rheumatic fever

13

Murmur: mitral stenosis

After the Opening Snap (which is even after S2)
Follows opening snap (OS d/t tension of chordae tendineae)
Delayed rumbling late diastolic murmur
LA prs >> LV prs during diastole
Enhanced by maneuvers that increase LA return- expiration (vs split S2 sound, which is enhanced by INspiration)

14

What can cause mitral stenosis?

Often secondary to rheumatic fever
Chronic MS can result in LA dilation

15

Murmur: PDA

Continuous- from S1 to S2 and beyond, but most at S2
Continuous machinery-like murmur
Loudest at S2

16

What murmur can be heard best at the tricuspid area?

Pan-systolic:
Tricuspid regurg
VSD

Diastolic:
Tricuspid stenosis
ASD

17

What murmurs are enhanced when TPR is increased?

Mitral regurg
Mitral prolapse

18

What murmur is enhanced when LA return is increased?

Mitral regurg
Mitral stenosis

19

What murmurs can be d/t Rheumatic Fever?

Mitral regurg
Mitral stenosis
Aortic regurg
Aortic stenosis
Tricuspid regurg
Mitral prolapse

20

What murmurs are loudest at S2?

Mitral prolapse
PDA

21

What are the diastolic murmurs? (After S2)

Aortic regurg
Mitral stenosis (late, after OS)
PDA is continuous, so can hear in both diastole and systole

22

What are the systolic murmurs? (B/t S1 and S2)

Mitral regurg
Tricuspid regurg
VSD
PDA (continuous)
Aortic stenosis (after EC)
Mitral prolapse (late, after MC)

23

What sounds are d/t sudden tensing of chordae tendineae?

Midsystolic click (systole)
Opening snap (diastole)

24

What do S1 and S2 heart sounds represent?

S1 = Mitral valve closure
S2 = Aortic valve closure
Between them is systole (contraction)

25

What murmurs can be best heard at the aortic area?

Systolic murmurs:
Aortic stenosis
Flow murmur
Aortic valve sclerosis

26

What murmurs can be best heard at the Left Sternal Border?

Diastolic murmur:
Aortic regurg
Pulmonic regurg
Systolic murmur:
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

27

What murmurs can be best heard at the pulmonic area?

Systolic ejection murmur:
Pulmonic stenosis
Flow murmur (eg ASD)

28

What murmurs can be best heard at the mitral area?

Systolic: mitral regurg
Diastolic: mitral stenosis

29

Systolic murmur at left sternal border

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

30

Systolic ejection murmur at pulmonic area

Pulmonic stenosis
Flow murmur (ASD)

31

Diastolic murmur at tricuspid area

Tricuspid stenosis
ASD

32

Diastolic murmur at mitral area

Mitral stenosis

33

Systolic murmur at aortic area

Aortic stenosis
Flow murmur
Aortic valve sclerosis

34

Diastolic murmur at left sternal border

Aortic regurg
Pulmonic regurg

35

Pansystolic murmur at tricuspid area

Tricuspid regurg
VSD

36

Systolic murmur at mitral area

Mitral regurg

37

Px of ASD murmur

Commonly presents as pulmonary flow murmur (increased flow thru pulm valve) plus a diastolic rumble (d/t increased flow across tricuspid).
Blood flow across the actual ASD does NOT cause a murmur bc there is no prs gradient.
The murmur later progresses to a louder diastolic murmur of pulmonic regurg, from dilation of the pulmonary artery

38

What valves should be open during diastole?

Diastolic filling- so mitral and tricuspid should be open. Therefore stenosis of these valves will make a diastolic murmur.

39

What valves should be closed during diastole?

Diastolic filling- aortic and pulm valves should be closed. If there is aortic or pulm regurg, will hear a murmur.

40

What valve should be open during systole?

Systolic contraction: aortic and pulmonic valves should be open (at the end of systole)
So aortic or pulm stenosis will cause a systolic murmur

41

What valves should be closed during systole?

Mitral and Tricuspid. So if have mitral or tricuspid regurg, will cause a systolic murmur.

42

When are all of the valves closed?

Isovolumetric contraction (Early systole)
Isovolumetric relaxation (Early diastole)

43

Best heard w pt in left lateral decubitous position (on left side)?

Mitral regurg
Mitral stenosis
Left-sided S3 and S4 heart sounds.

44

Most common causes of aortic stenosis

Congenital bicuspid valve (doesn't px until >40yo)
Senile calcification
Chronic rheumatic valve dz

Less common, but still causes:
Congenital unicuspid valve
Syphilis (tree-barking of aorta- can cause stenosis or regurg)

45

VSD and tricuspid regurg sound the same. In what pts is it likely to be VSD? to be tricuspid regurg?

VSD: newborns
IV drug user: tricuspid regurg

46

What does holosystolic mean?

Blood is flowing through valves during all of systole (S1 to S2), including during isovolumetric contraction at the beginning (when there should be no flow)

47

How do you open/close a PDA?

Open: prostaglandins
Close: NSAIDs (indomethicin)

48

Signs of R-sided heart failure

Peripheral / lower extremity edema
Hepatosplenomegaly

49

Signs of L-sided heart failure

Pulmonic congestion / edema
Dyspnea on exertion
Orthopnea
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea

50

Signs/sympt of bacterial endocarditis

Fever (most common sympt)
Roth's spots (round white spots on retina surrounded by hemorrhage)
Osler's nodes (tender raised lesions on finger/toe pads)
New murmur (caused by valvular dmg)
Janeway lesions (sml erythematous lesions on palm or sole)
Anemia
Spinter hemorrhages on nail bed

Bacterial FROM JANE:
Fever
Roth's spots
Osler's nodes
Murmur
Janeway lesions
Anemia
Nail-bed hemorrhages (splinter)
Emboli

51

What valves are usu involved in bacterial endocarditis?

Mitral valve most frequently
Tricuspid valve in IV drug users (don't tri drugs)- assoc w S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Candida

52

Complications of bacterial endocarditis

chordae rupture
glomerulonephritis
suppurative pericarditis
R-sided (tricuspid) emboli -->PE
L-sided (mitral) emboli --> Stroke

53

Organisms causing bacterial endocarditis

Acute is caused by S. aureus (high virulence)
See lg vegetations on valves that were fine before. Rapid onset.

Subacute is caused by viridans strep (low virulence)
Smlr vegetations, seen on congentially abn or diseased valves (not good valves). More insidious onset. Can occur after dental procedures- so give abx before!

Enterococci (VRE esp bad, bc can't give vanco)

Coag-neg Staph (S. epidermiditis)

IV drug users: S. aureus, Pseudomonas, Candida, S. epidermiditis
Colon cancer pts: S. bovis
Pts w prosthetic valves: S. epidermitidis
Culture-neg: HACEK organisms

54

Non-bacterial endocarditis

Occurs secondary to malignancy or hyper-coag state (marantic / thrombolyic endocarditis)

55

How to dx bacterial endocarditis

multiple blood cultures

56

What are the HACEK organisms?

Hemophilus
Actinobacillus
Cardiobacterium hominis
Eikenella corrodens
Kingella

These cause culture-negative endocarditis

57

What is Libman-Sacks endocarditis?

Verrucous (wart-like), sterile vegetations
Non-infective
Occur on both sides of valve.
Most often benign; can be assoc w mitral regurg and (less common) mitral stenosis

The most common heart manefestation of SLE!
SLE causes LSE

58

What is endocarditis?

Inflammation of the inner layer of the heart- the endocardium
Usu involves the valves
Can also involve other structures- IV septum, chordae tendonae, mural endocardium, intracardiac devices

59

What are vegetations?

Mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and inflammatory cells

Subacute (viridians) vegetations can also have a center of granulomatous tsu which can calcify/fibrose.

60

Which lesions of endocarditis are painful? non-painful?

Painful = Osler's nodes on finger/toe pads
Non-painful = Janeway lesions on palms/soles

61

What are the features of Hypovolemic/Cardiogenic shock?
Septic shock?

Hypovol/Cardiogenic = LOW-output failure
Increased TPR (afterload)
Low CO
Cold, clammy pt

Septic = HIGH-output failure
Decreased TPR (decreased afterload)
Dilated arterioles, high mixed venous prs
Hot pt

62

SVR & CO, plus Rx in Hypovolemic shock

SVR and CO both increase
Rx = IV fluid and blood

63

Causes of hypovolemic shock

Blood loss d/t trauma (gunshot, MVA, stabbing)
Severe burns

64

SVR & CO plus Rx in Heart failure (cardiogenic shock)

CO is decreased bc heart is failing, so have a compensatory increase in SVR
Rx = LMNOPP
Loop/Lasix
Morphine
Nitrates
O2
Pressors
Positioning

65

SVR & CO plus Rx in sepsis/anaphylaxis

Massive vasodilation - decreased SVR
Compensatory increase in CO
Rx Abx, IV fluids (plus NE if needed)

66

SVR & CO plus Rx in neurogenic shock

E.g. Spinal cord injury, TBI
This means there is not good communication b/t body and brain, so nothing works:
SVR and CO are both decreased
Rx IV fluids. For SC injury give high dose corticosteroids

67

Causes of cardiogenic shock

Heart failure
MI
Arrhythmias (V-tach, esp V-fib)
Tamponade
Pulm embolism
Tension pneumothorax
Cardiac contusion

68

Sympt of Rheumatic heart dz

FEVERSS:
Fever
Erythema marginatum
Valve dmg (vegetation and fibrosis)
ESR increased
Red-hot joints (migratory polyarthritis
Subcutaneous nodules (Aschoff bodies)
St. Vitus' dance (chorea)

OR
JONES (O = s cells (activiated histiocytes)
Elevated ASO titers
Aschoff body - granuloma w giant cells

69

What is Rheumatic heart dz?

Pharyngeal infection w S. pyogenes Gp A strep (beta-hemolytic), which leads to dz
Early deaths are d/t myocarditis
Late results: rheumatic heart dz (affects heart valves mitral > aortic >> tricuspid)
Early lesion - mitral valve prolapse
Late lesion- mitral stenosis

NOT bacterial. It is immune-mediated (type II HPS). There are Ab to M protein.

70

Aschoff body

Pathognomonic for rheumatic heart dz!
It's a granuloma w giant cells in the middle of myocyte cells (heart muscle).
Area of fibrinous necrosis, surrounded by mono-nuclear lymphocytes and multinucleated giant cells.

71

T/F Rheumatic dz of the heart is d/t bacterial infection.

False. It's auto-immune
But: It is the consequence of S. pyogenes infection.

72

Cardiac tamponade

Compression of heart by fluid in pericardium (eg blood, effusion), which squeezes the heart and t/f causes decreased CO.
Bc there is prs from the outside all around, all 4 chambers equalize in prs (the diastolic prs)

73

Findings in cardiac tamponade

hypotension
increased venous prs (JVD)
distant heart sounds (have to hear them through the fluid)
increased HR (to make up for the decreased CO)
Pulsus paradoxus
EKG: electrical alternans (QRS has beat-to-beat variations in amplitude- sometimes tall, sometimes short, medium, etc)

74

What is pulsus paradoxis?

Exaggerated decrease in amplitude (loudness) of pulse during inspiration.
So when pt breaths in, systolic BP drops a lot (>10mmHg).
Seen in severe cardiac tamponade, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, croup (things w exaggerated inspiration)

75

What are the types of pericarditis?

Serious (SLE, Rheum Arthritis, viral infection, uremia)
Fibrinous (Uremia, MI-dressler's synd, Rheum Fever)
Hemorrhagic (TB, malignancy-melanoma)

76

What are the findings in pericarditis?

Pericaridal pain
Friction rub
Pulsus paradoxus
Distant heart sounds
EKG chgs- ST segmt elevation in MULTIPLE leads (vs MI- only in a few specific leads, dep on MI location)
Kussmaul's sign (JVD w inspiration)

It can get better w/o scarring, or it can cause chronic adhesive or chronic constrictive pericarditis

77

Heart dz caused by syphilis

Tertiary (3) syphilis dmgs the vaso vasorum of the aorta, causing dilation of the aorta and the valve ring (root of the aorta)
Tree-barking: can see calcification of aortic root and ascending aortic arch.

Can result in aneurysm of the ascending aorta or the aortic arch; aortic valve incompetence

78

What is Kussmaul's sign/pulse?

JVD with inspiration
Caused by decreased capacity of RIGHT ventricle
Common in constrictive pericarditis (not v much in tamponade)

79

How is pulsus paradoxus different from Kussmaul's?

PParadox has to do w decreased systolic BP on inspiration. It is decreased capacity of LV (vs Kussmaul's which is RV)
And it occurs in cardiac tamponade (vs Kussmauls, which occurs in pericarditis).

80

Myxoma

Most common primary cardiac tumor in adults
90% are in atria (mostly LA)
HUGE BALL.
Ball-valve obstruction in LA assoc w multiple syncopal episodes.

81

Rhabdomyoma

Most freq primary cardiac tumor in kids
Assoc w tuberous sclerosis

82

Most common heart tumor

Metastases - melanoma, lymphoma

83

Chest pain, dyspnea, tachycardia, tachypnea in..
IV drug user
MVA pt
Post-op pt

IVDU: Bacterial endocarditis (maybe bacterial embolism --> PE)
MVA pt: Tension pneumothorax
Post-op: Pulm embolism (esp if pt is also confused)

84

Immediate Rx for bacterial endocarditis

Get culture
give IV vanco
then later give specific Abx dep on what culture shows

85

Diffuse myocardial inflam w necrosis and mononuclear cells

Myocarditis

86

Chest pain + course rubbing heart sounds in pt w Creatinine 5.0

Uremic pericarditis

87

ST elevations in all EKG leads

Pericarditis

88

Disordered growth of myocytes

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

89

EKG shows electrical alternans

Cardiac tamponade

90

Raynaud's dz

Decrsd blood flow to skin d/t arteriolar vasospasm
Caused by cold temp, emotional distress
Fingers and toes turn blue/white
Sml vessel dz

Can be secondary to:
MCTD (mixed CT dz)
SLE
CREST scleroderma
Buerger's dz

91

Rx for Raynaud's

Aspirin
Dihydropyridine CCBs
Sildenafil (ED- but great vasodilator)

92

Renal dz + lung dz

Wegener's granulomatosis or Goodpasture's syndrome
Differentiate bc Wegener's has upper airway dz, Goodpasture's doesn't

93

Perforation of nasal septum- cause

Cocaine abuse
Wegener's granulomatousis

94

Triad for Wegener's granulomatosis

Focal necrotizing vasculitis (sml vessles)
Necrotizing granulomas in lung/upper airway (hard palate, soft palate, oropharynx, nasopharynx)
Necrotizing glomerulonephritis

So basically a lot of inflam that necrotizes.

95

Symptoms of Wegener's granulomatosis

Hemoptysis
Hematuria
Perf of nasal septum
Chronic sinusitis
Otitis media
Mastoiditis
Cough, Dyspnea

96

Lab findings in Wegener's granulomatosis

c-ANCA (!!!)

CXR might show lg nodular densities
Hematuria and red cell casts

97

Rx for Wegener's granulomatosis

Cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids

(this is also the Rx for polyarteritis nodosa)

98

What 3 things are p-ANCA positive?

Microscopic poly angitis
Primary pauci-immune crescentic glomerular nephritis
Churg-Strauss syndrome.

99

What is microscopic polyangitis?

Like Wegeners (inflam, necrosis- lungs, kidneys), but does NOT have granulomas.
p-ANCA

100

What is primary pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis?

Vasculitis limited to kidney
Pauce-immune = paucity of Ab
p-ANCA
mpo-ANCA

101

What is Churgg-Strauss syndrome?

Granulomatous vasculitis w eosinophilia(!)
Px: asthma, sinusitis, skin lesions, and peripheral neuropathy (foot/wrist drop)
Can also involve heart, GI, kidneys
p-ANCA
"vasculitis in a young asthmatic"

102

Things that cause eosinophilia

Atopy (predisposition to HPS rxns)
Asthma
Allergies
Parasites
Churg-Strauss

103

Sturge-Weber dz

Congenital vascular disorder that affects capillaries. (sml vessels)
Causes port wine stain (nevus fammeus) at opthalmic division of trigeminal nerve on face;
Ipsilateral angiomatosis (intracerebral AVM)
Seizures
Early-onset glaucoma
MR
Hemiplegia

104

Henoch-Schonlein purpura

Lower extremity palpable purpura (butt and legs)
Arthralgia (knees esp)
Abd pain (intestinal hemorrhage, melena)
Recent URI

Most commone form of childhood systemic vasculitis.
IgA immune complexes
Assoc w IgA nephropathy (nephrotic, nephritic synd)
Self-limiting

105

Buerger's dz

aka thromboangiitis obliterans
Heavy smoker(!) with
idiopathic, segmental, thrombosing vasculitis of sml and medium periph arteries and veins

Sympt: intermittent claudication, superficial nodular phlebitis, cold sensitivity (reynaud's phenomenon), severe pain in affected part
Can lead to gangrene and auto-amputation of digits
RX: stop smoking!

106

T/F medium-vessel dz causes thrombosis/infarction of arteries

True

107

Kawasaki dz

aka mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome
Asian infants/children w acute, self-limiting necrotizing vasculitis

Sympt: fever, conjunctivitis, chg in lips/oral mucosa (strawberry tongue, lips cracking), lymphadenitis, peeling palms/fingers/toes (desquamative skin rash)
May develop coronary aneurysms- really dangerous bc a) can rupture and heart won't be perfused or b) the widening pools blood and causes thrombosis- so heart won't be perfused.
Affects sml and medium vessels

108

Rx for Kawasaki dz

IV immunoglobulin (pooled Ab from population)
High dose aspirin- this is the only time you give it to kids (Reye's!)

109

Polyarteritis nodosa

Transmural vasculitis w fibrinoid necrosis.
Is immune-mediated.

HBV+ pt (30%) w non-specific sympt: fever, weight loss, malaise, abd pain, melena, headache, myalgia, HTN, neurologic dysfn, cutaneous eruptions

110

Findings and Rx for Polyarteritis nodosa

HBV +
See multiple aneurysms and constricitons on arteriogram. (Lesions are of different ages)
Sml and med-vessel dz
Usu renal and visceral vessels (NOT pulm arteries)

Rx: corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide (same rx as wegener's, but wegener's is p-ANCA positive, this is not.)

111

Takayasu's arteritis

pulseless dz- weak pulses in upper extremities.

Asian 40+ yo Female w granulomatous thickening of aortic arch and/or proximal great vessels. Assoc w increased ESR.
medium and large vessel dz.

Sympt: fever, arthritis, night sweats, myalgia, skin nodules, ocular disturbances, weak pulse in upper extremity.

112

Temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis)

Most common vasculitis affecting med and lg arteries, usu branches of carotid artery.

Elderly females w focal, granulomatous inflam.

Sympt:
unilateral headache
jaw claudication
impaired vision (occlusion of opthalimic artery- can lead to irrev blindness.

TEMPoral arteritis has signs near TEMPles.

Can also hv hyperpigmt of temples, pronounced temporal artery, muscle wasting over temples, and poor perfusion of scalp

113

Findings and Rx in Temporal arteritis

Assoc w increased ESR
Half of pts have systemic involvement and polymyalgia rheumatica

Rx: high dose steriods (for over a year)

114

Polymyalgia rhematica

Pain and stiffness in shoulders, hips
Often w fever, malaise, weight loss
Does NOT cause muscular weakness- joints just hurt.
Pts 50+ years
Assoc w temporal arteritis (giant cell arteritis)

Findings: increased ESR, normal CK (not muscular)
Rx: Prednisone

115

Differential Dx for red lesions

Strawberry hemangioma
Cherry hemangioma
Pyogenic granuloma
Cystic hygroma
Glomus tumor
Bacillary angiomatosis
Angiosarcoma
Lymphangiosarcoma
Kaposi's sarcoma

116

Strawberry hemangioma

Benign capillary hemangioma in infancy
Grows w child initially, then spontaneously regresses.

117

Cherry hemangioma

Benign capillary hemangioma in elderly
Does not regress
Freq increases w age

118

Pyrogenic granuloma

Polypoid capillary hemangioma that can ulcerate and bleed.
Assoc w trauma and pregnancy

119

Hemangioma

Benign tumor
Abn buildup of bld vessels in skin or organs

120

Cystic hygroma

Cavernous lymphangioma of the neck.
Assoc w Turner's 45XO

121

Glomus tumor

Benign but painful, red-blue tumor under fingernails.
Arises from modified smooth musc cells of glomus body

122

Bacillary angiomatosis

Benign capillary skin papules found in AIDS pts.
Caused by Bartonella henselae infection
Freq mistaken as Kaposi's sarcoma

123

Angiosarcoma

Highly lethal malignancy of the liver
Assoc w exposure to vinyl chloride, arsenic, and ThO2 (thorotrast) exposure

124

Lymphangiosarcoma

Lymphatic malignancy assoc w persistent lymphadema (e.g post- radical mastectomy)

125

Kaposi's sarcoma

Endothelial malignancy of the skin assoc w HHV-8 and HIV
Freq mistaken as bacillary angiomatosis.

126

Which vasculitis has...
Weak upper extremity pulses?
Occlusion of the opthalmic artery, which can cause blindness?
Perforation of the nasal septum?

Weak pulse = Takayasu
Opthal artery occlusion = Temporal arteritis
Nasal septum = Wegener's gran.

127

Which vasculitis features
Necrotizing granulomas of lung, and necrotizing glomerulonephritis?
Unlateral headache and jaw claudication?
Necrotizing immune-coomplex inflam of visceral/renal vessels?

Necrotizing lung, nephritis = Wegener's
Uni headache/Jaw = Temporal arteritis
Imm-complx in renal vessles = Polyarteritis Nodosa

128

Which vasculitis is common in...
Young male smokers?
Young asian women?
Asian babies?
Young asthmatics?

M smoker = Buerger's
Asian F = Takayasu
Asian baby = Kawasaki
Asthmatic = Churg-Strauss

129

Vasculitis in...
HBV+ pts?
Infants/kids, w coronary problems?
Most common?

HBV = Polyarteritis nodosa
Coronary prob = Kawasaki
Most common = temporal arteritis

130

Most common brain tumor in adults?

Gliobastoma multiforme (also most deadly)

131

Pregnant woman has normal BP but when lying down it drops. Why?

Compression of IVC
less preload, so less SV
If prego should lie on side.