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Flashcards in Safety Test 1 August 28 Deck (13):

Low focus on hazard vs. High focus on hazard

- low focus on hazard = high task achievement, but high injury occurrence
- high focus on hazard = lower task achievement and lower injury ocurrence


How safe is safe enough?

- you'll never know the answer
- depends on what you're dealing with (contextual relativism)
- experts agree all accidents can NOT be eliminated


What do we do as engineers? Brauer suggests 4 E's:

- engineering
- education
- enforcement
- enthusiasm


OSHA's distinction between injuries and illnesses

- used to distinguish between the two on OSHA 200 log (now OSHA 300 log)
-primary distinction between the 2 is the "instantaneous" onset of injuries vs. the cumulative nature of illnesses


Safety Engineer vs. Industrial Hygiene

-safety engineer is primarily responsible for hazards that can result in injuries and industrial hygiene is primarily responsible for hazards that can result in illness
- "injury" risk factors grouped as safety concerns, "illness" risk factors grouped as hygiene concerns


What is necessary for an effective safety program?

- cooperation between safety and industrial hygiene staff
- good communication with health care providers both on-site and off-site is critical


Hammurabi's Code

- basically says "an eye for an eye"
- first "worker protection laws"


prior to workers compensation laws, employers used what 3 major defenses to avoid compensating workers for on-the-job injuries?

- the workers contributory negligence
- negligence of co-workers
- inherent risk of the work


OSH Act of 1970

- set min standards for workplace safety
- a general duty clause (for hazardous conditions and operations for which a specific standard does not exist)
- came with OSHAct


General Duty Clause

- section 5a of OSHAct
- each employer shall:
- furnish to each of his employees employment and a place of employment which are free from recognized hazards that are causing or are likely to cause death or serious physical harm to his employees
- shall comply with occupational safety and health standards promulgated under this act
- only use general duty when another standard doesn't apply, or if it is causing or likely to cause death or serious physical harm


OSHA Injury and Illness Rate

= (N x 200,000) / EH
- N is # of OSHA recordable injuries (at a threshold where you have to log it) for the year
- EH = employee hours worked for the year
- 200,000 is # hours worked by 100 full time workers in 1 year
- it represents the # of injuries and illnesses a company would expect to have (based on actual injury rate) if it had 100 full time employees
- allows for comparison between similar companies


Voluntary Protection Program (VPP) Guidelines

- management commitment and employee involvement
- work site analysis
- hazard prevention and control
- safety and health training
- no OSHA visits if you're a part of this; however, you must maintain high standards


average OSHA injury and illness rate in 1995 (and what does this mean), 2005, and 2010

- 9.9 in 1995 - nearly 10% of general industry workforce suffered injury/illness in that year
- 6.3 in 2005
- 4.4 in 2010