Safety Test 1 August 26 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Safety Test 1 August 26 Deck (25):

what is one of the most dangerous things about confined spaces?

Atmospheric dangers b/c you can't see them - over 50% of fatalities in confined spaces are would-be rescuers


Accident Losses
- decision to provide safety is a tradeoff of what?
- corporations old/new views/acts on safety
- safe workers = ?

- providing safeguards to reduce accidents is a tradeoff between costs and moral responsibility for human life and well-being
- Corporations used to pressure government/lawmakers not to pass safety laws to avoid costs - this pressure has been somewhat moderated as corporations find safety to be economically beneficial
- safe workers = more productive and motivated


improving attitudes towards safety

- safety pays
- legislation is inevitable (not always costly)
- safety "evens out" - cheaper to pay for safety now then pay later
- increased recognition of an individuals right to a safe work place


Physical Effects of Accidents

- accidents are the leading cause of deaths from persons aging from teenage to age 45
- up to age 24, more deaths are due to accidents than from all other causes combined
- fatalities from industrial accidents far exceed those from wars
- many injuries and even fatalities may not be reported (long-term exposure deaths, recordkeeping "games", or no government requirement to report them)


Gender Differences in workplace fatalities

- greater than 90% of deaths are male
-males are around 52% of workforce
-workplace homicide account for 10% of male work-related fatalities (40% of female work-related fatalities)


Accidents and Costs

- monetary losses have become the measure for accidents
- environmental costs are also a measure
- fines for violating OSHA safety laws can be substantial - accidents are NOT a prerequisite for citations and fines


Total Safety Costs

= the sum of :
- immediate losses due to accident
- rehabilitation and restoration
- accident prevention costs
- immeasurable costs (what is your hand worth?)


increasing magnitude of Accident Losses

- accidents usually cost much more than what is reimbursed by insurance companies
- total costs of accidents are 3-20 times the workers compensation alone
- multi-million dollar awards for lawsuits are no longer unusual
- treatment of employees after injuries (re-assignment to lower paying jobs, etc) has also resulted in larger settlements against employers


Accident (incident)

an unintentional, single or multiple event sequence, resulting from unsafe acts and/or unsafe conditions and resulting in unwanted consequences to people, property, and/or the environment


Losses (definition)

- injury, illness, and death are the most striking
- must account for damage to equipment, materials, property/environment, expenses, repair and/or replacement


Direct vs. Indirect costs

- direct: obvious and directly attribute to the accident/incident
- indirect: those tangentially (slightly) associated with an event


Indirect:Direct ratio

- Heinrich suggests a 4:1 ratio
- Liberty Mutual suggests 5:1
- National Safety Council: 3-5:1


Safety Professional

an individual who, by virtue of his specialized knowledge and skill and/or educational accomplishments, has achieved professional status in the safety field


Unsafe Acts vs. Unsafe conditions study by Heinrich

- studied 75,000 accidents and found that 88% attributable to unsafe acts, 10% to unsafe conditions, 2% unpreventable


Incident-Injury Relationships (heinrich)

- he wanted to take emphasis off the results (injuries/illnesses) and put it on the unsafe acts/conditions
- 300:29:1 ratio (no injuries, minor injuries, serious lost-time injury)
- how do you estimate near misses?
- many more minor things than major things - if we eliminate these unsafe behaviors, we attack the bottom of the pyramid and we never work our way to the top - you cant eliminate unsafe acts if you have unsafe conditions


When you work with safety, you...

you work with management, but you're an advocate for the worker


Accident-Proneness Theory (old view)

- the theory states that there are inherent characteristics of some individuals that predispose them to a greater probability of being involved in accidents
- Sesek believes that there are inherent characteristics in some individuals, not that make them more likely to be hurt, but that make them a risky person
- many studies support this theory - they show injuries are not randomly distributed


Accident-Proneness Theory (new view)

-recent researchers view accident proneness as being associated with the propensity of individuals to take risks/chances
- this presents a more positive view for safety, as behavior can be altered even though the propensity to take risks may not


Goals-Freedom-Alertness theory

- fundamental concept that accidents are the result of low quality (unsafe) behavior resulting from an unrewarding psychological climate that does not contribute to mental alertness
- workers should have the ability to set attainable goals
- workers should have the freedom to pursue their goals
- this will result in a "rich" work climate with alertness and fewer accidents


Adjustments to Stress Theory

- a negative work environment contributes to accident causation
- negative work environment often caused by stress
- excessive stress prevents individual from focusing on work


Chain of Events

- not really a theory of accident causation, but often referred to as one
- there is not a single cause of an accident but there are any causes of an accident
- in general, every accident is preceded by a series of events/accidents
- if any one event/activity had been done differently, the accident wouldn't have happened ("break the chain to avoid an accident")


Domino theory

- associated with chain of events
- there are many links in the chain and only ONE link needs to be broken
- Heinrich - first scientific approach to accident/prevention


Heinrich's theorums

- injury - caused by accidents
- accidents - caused by unsafe act (injured person) or unsafe condition (work place)
- unsafe acts/conditions - caused by careless persons or poorly designed or improperly maintained equipment
fault of persons - created by social environment or acquired by ancestry
- social environment/ancestry - where and how a person was related and educated


Distractions Theory

- states that accidents are caused when workers are distracted when performing their tasks
- 2 types of distractions: focus on hazards, focus on task completion
- dilemma: focus on hazards vs. focus on task


Fletcher's no injury : minor injury : serious lost-time injury ration