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Flashcards in Safety Test 1 September 2 Deck (34):

Reasons for investigating accidents/incidents

- to determine causes so that action can be taken to prevent similar or worse events
- economic motivation
- OSHA/gvmnt requirements
- insurance company requirements
- trend analysis
- potential litigation (law suits)


Incident Definition

- an undesired event that, under slightly different circumstances, could have resulted in personal harm or property damage; any undesired loss of resources
- AKA near miss



- is a measure of both the likelihood and consequence of all hazards of an activity
- is a subjective evaluation of relative failure potential
- can be thought of in terms of "acceptable" levels of risk or "tolerable" levels
- function of the reward structure


Methods of Hazard Control

- eliminate the hazard (engineering, substitution)
- reduce the hazard level and potential (severity and frequency) - distance, time, shielding, reduction in quantity, limit # people exposed
- provide safety devices, procedures, and associated training (JSA)
- warnings
-Worker rotation (administrative)


Hazard Control Hierarchy (What sesek says it is)

1. Engineering controls (physical/operational design)
2. everything else


Direct Causes

these are the accident events, the release of energy that may or may not cause injury, damage, or system failure


Indirect causes

the unsafe acts and conditions that precede the accident event. this is where many accident investigations stop


Basic or Root Causes

the system failure that permitted, encouraged, allowed, failed to identify and correct, failed to follow up on, failed to anticipate or correct, the unsafe acts and conditions that preceded the release of energy
- often management related (affects not just particular incident, but all incidents like it)


Accident Investigation

keep going until you get to a cause that causes an entire systematic change


- unsafe acts have root causes in / result from:

- many unsafe acts have a root cause in poor implementation of safety procedures or enforcement of existing safety rules - MANAGERS ARENT GOING AROUND DOING THEIR JOBS
- many result from equipment that's awkward to operate, uncomfortable PPE, lack of understanding of basic ergonomic principles


where to find root causes

you should virtually always be able to find underlying root causes related to shortcomings in the design and/or procedures


Types of Basic/Root Causes

- management system failure - policies/procedures not adequate or not enforced, health/safety not considered in procurement of equipment (ppl often buy whats cheapest)
- design failures - workers experience/ability not adequately considered/evaluated, physical/mental factors of workers not adequately considered, operating environment not adequately addressed, "forseeable" misuse not seen (you need to account for the fact that ppl are going to misuse equipment)


Root Cause "rules"

- ask why until you can no longer ask why
- answer to each why should lead to the root cause or another why; if it doesnt, consider it a dead end or look for another why question
- a root cause is reached when a root action can be taken (action that permanently affects the root cause)


definition of industrial hygiene

the science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising from the workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among citizens of community


What is Job Hazard Analysis

- a method for analyzing jobs, identifying potential hazards (not just existing ones), and proscribing abatement's for these potential hazards
- use JHA to figure out which PPE to use
- ideally, most hazards engineered out of system
- if hazards cannot be eliminated or minimized below injurious levels, procedures and PPE should be recommended


JHA Steps

- select jobs for analysis
- involve employees in analysis
- break job into tasks/steps
- identify potential hazards
- recommend safe procedures and protection, after engineering controls are explored
- periodically revise the JHA


why do we need to inspect for hazards?

there might be something you didn't anticipate, initially


hazards are a function of...

the worker, task, and environment


eliminating and controlling hazards

- eliminated and controlled by good design and/or procedures
- those hazards that remain after control measures, are undiscovered, or are added by changes in the system configuration must be dealt with


Order of preference for eliminating and controlling hazards

eliminate hazard
limiting hazard level
isolation, barriers, interlocks
fail-safe design
minimizing failures


two types of controls:

- engineering control - physical changes to environment
- administrative - policies, methods, or procedures to limit potential of exposure to hazard


elimination of hazards

- good housekeeping
- use noncombustible materials
- use alternative energy sources
- eliminate sharp/protruding objects


hazard level limitation

- limit it if it cannot be eliminated
- solid state electrical devices ( power is less than that required for ignition of flammables)
- automatic ventilation/pressure relief
- limit static electricity w/ conductive coatings & ESD procedures


lockouts and interlocks

- lockout prevents an event from occurring or a person from entering undesired area
- lockout prevents activating/initiating an operation
- interlock stops an event in progress or does not allow an event to progress


what does fail-safe design prevent

-injury to personnel
- major catastrophes
- damage to equipment
- degraded operations


how does fail-safe design prevent these things

- leave system unaffected, or
- convert to state where no damage results (deadman control on lawn mower)


types of fail-safe designs

- fail passive: reduces system to lowest energy level
- fail active: keeps system in safe operating mode until corrective action or an alternative is activated (e.g. blinking light signal)
- fail operational: allows system to function until corrective action is possible (no loss of function)


Proper fail-safe design must have adequate:

- sensitivity


failure minimization

- safety factors and margins
- failure rate reduction
- parameter monitoring


what are safety factors and margins?

- components and structures designed with strengths greater than normally required
- allows for calculation errors, variations in material, transient loads and material degradation


What is failure rate reduction and what are methods of it?

- actions to limit failures while system is operating
- methods:
- increasing life expectancy of components
- screening
- timed placement
- redundant arrangement


responses by systems

- normal situation: no response
- levels set to provide adequate time to decide and act
- automatic response may be desired or required (or not!)


in this class, we put root/basic causes into 2 categories:

- design flaws
- procedural flaws


ways to isolate hazards

- separate by space
- separate materials
- isolation devices (keep noise in an area)
- shielding
- vibration amounts
- machine guards
- etc.