Safety Test 1 September 11 Flashcards Preview

SCHOOL > Safety Test 1 September 11 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Safety Test 1 September 11 Deck (33):

slips, trips, and falls are the ___ leading cause of occupational fatalities, and how many people is this per year?

- 2nd (after motor vehicle accidents)
- 16,000 people die each year as a result of falls
- over 3 million children per year visit ER's b/c of these
- one of the most preventable injury causes


What causes trips

when the foot is stopped or slowed during its swing phase



result when the foot slips during the weight acceptance phase


weight-acceptance slip

the fall results when the foot slips during the weight acceptance phase


push-off slip

fall results when foot slips during the push off phase


slip resistance defined
(dynamic coefficient of friction)

the relative force that resists the tendency of the shoe/foot to slide along the walkway surface. it is related to a combination of factors including walkway surface, footwear bottom, and presence of foreign materials between them


slip resistance vs. static coefficient of friction

- not equivalent
- both expressed as unitless measures from 0-1
- slip resistance accounts for the dynamic interaction of footwear with walking surface
- they tend to converge together under dry conditions
- static can overestimate slip resistance under wet conditions


presumed "safe level" of static coefficient of friction (dry)

right around 0.5 (threshold of safety)


why static coefficient of friction cannot be used for wet conditions

can provide an artificially high reading on wet surfaces due to adhesion between test foot and surface, particularly when there's a long delay before the application of horizontal force


Sticktion problem

- "sticktion" occurs when water is squeezed out between surfaces and creates temporary adhesion between foot and surface
- in some cases, coefficient of friction of wet surface may test higher than same dry surface, when wet surface is actually quite slippery
- this problem can be avoided by eliminating pre-test residence time by applying horizontal and vertical force at same time


protocols for measuring slip resistance

- methods vary
- some accident investigators have misused standards


Injury Potential: falls from height

- walking surface failure
- accidental stepping where no walking surface exists


Other injury potentials

- stepping into openings, people holes, etc.
- stepping off loading docks and other elevated surfaces w/o guards
- deliberate stepping/jumping where no surface exists
- failure of guardrails and other restraining devices
- falls from ladders


Housekeeping - why does OSHA care about this?

- it is actually a law
- bad housekeeping causes slips, trips, fire hazards, etc.



- must be marked
- must be clear
- must be designed with adequate space for the tasks they're used for


the rated load limits for a floor, mezzanine, platform, etc. must be:

- determined by a structural professional
- indicated on a permanent plate affixed in obvious position
- never allow loads above capacity


floor and wall openings

- must prevent people/materials from falling through
- can have no more than 1 inch of open surface w/o some kind of cover
- can have a permanent attendant in lieu of railing/cover


Fixed stairs are required if:

- if regular travel from one level to another is required
- if daily travel is required to other levels that contain harmful substances
- if daily carrying of equipment, materials, or tools is required


when can you use ladders instead of stairs?

if the destination is not another level, but a tank, crane, platform, etc.


ladder requirements

- maintain 3 points of contact w/ ladder
- however long ladder is, supposed to be 1/4th that length from wall
- rungs (minimum 12" apart and 16" wide)
- ladder must reach 3 ft above surface
- extension ladder sections must overlap 3 ft (more if > 36 ft long)
- must ascend/descend facing ladder


no step ladder can exceed:

20 ft high


if ladder tips over:

it must be inspected


if fixed ladders exceed 20 ft, must:

must have a landing or platform every 20 ft (every 30 ft if a cage is present)


Pitch of ladder

- 75-90 degrees for portable and fixed ladders
- portable: 4-1 ratio (one foot out for every 4 feet up)


Fixed Ladders: pitch, clearance between ladder and wall, and rear clearance

-75-90 degrees
- 7 inches between ladder and wall
- 30 inches rear clearance


broken ladders

- never used
- immediately taken out of service until repaired or replaced


Scaffolding - definition and requirements

- any temporary elevated platform and its supporting structure used for supporting workmen and/or materials
- designed for 4X intended load
- may not work during storms/high winds


Standard Railing

- top rail + mid rail + posts
- 42" high
- must withstand 200 lb of force applied in any direction
- posts can be no more than 8 ft apart


Standard Toe Board

- .25" from floor
- 4" high
- keeps materials from falling on people and people from sliding under mid rail and falling


Standard Stair Railing

- used when no wall next to stairs
- only 30-34" high (same specs as standard railing other than this)


Standard Handrail

- used when there is a wall next to stairs
- 3" from wall, bracketed to wall every 8 ft
- 30-34" high


When to use standard rail or handrail

- if there are 4 or more risers
- atleast one handrail on right side of enclosed stairs
- if stair width greater than 44 in, need a handrail on each enclosed side and a rail on each open side
- if stair width greater than 88 in, need an intermediate rail in the middle


"SISSY" Notation

- Select proper ladder
- Inspect ladder prior to use
- Setup ladder properly, check stability
- Safely climb/descend ladder
- You are most important element, use good safety practices