Section 4: Feeding Management of Horses (Warren) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Section 4: Feeding Management of Horses (Warren) Deck (84):
1

Percentage breakdown of stomach, small intestine, and large intestine for horses

stomach: 8%
small intestine: 30%
large intestine: 62%

2

fxs of stomach

-start protein digestion
-mechanical churning
-NO absorption

3

2 parts of stomach

-non-glandular (esophageal region)
-glandular (cardiac, fundic, pyloric regions)

4

secretions of glandular stomach

HCl, pepsinogen, mucus

5

fxs of SI

-enzymatic digestion of starch protein, fat
-absorption of sugars, aa, NEFA, vits/mins

6

fxs of LI

microbes for fiber digestion

7

4 segments of LI

cecum, large colon, small colon, rectum

8

non-digestible carb

lignin

9

insoluble fibers. How are these digested?

hemicellulose, cellulose, ligno-cellulose. slowly fermented in LI --> acetate, butyrate

10

Resistant starches and soluble fibers. How are these digested?

fructans, pectins, gums, micilages, galactans. Rapidly fermented in LI --> lactate, propionate

11

how are monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, starches digested?

enzymatic hydrolysis in SI --> glucose

12

NDF

neutral detergent fiber. Comprised of insoluble fiber and lignin

13

see table top of slide 3

:)

14

5 common digestion disorders

1) impaction
2) gas build-up
3) hindgut acidosis
4) laminitis
5) gastric ulcers

15

impaction is caused by:

blockage in intestines, usually at sternal/pelvic flexures or ileocecal jx

16

normal products of microbial digestion of fiber in LI

VFA, B-vits, vit K, heat, gas

17

what happens in gas build-up? What is produced?

rate of gas prod. exceeds rate of gas removal with rapid fermentation of NSC (non-structurable carb). lactic acid, drop in pH, lots of gas produced.

18

gas build-up can secondarily cause:

colic, stomach rupture, torsion/displacement of intestine

19

hindgut acidosis

low pH in hindgut due to lactic acid prod. from rapid ferm. of NSC. Results in:
-microbe death
-endotoxins/inflamatory mediators -->diarrhea, laminitis
-metabolic changes
-reduced gastric motility --> colic
-reduced digestive efficiency

20

laminitis

disruption of intricate network of blood supply to feet. Can be caused by nutrition and other factors

21

founder

can happen secondarily to laminitis from tendons pulling up and weight of horse pushing down

22

nutrition-related laminitis is probably due to:

excess NSC intake. Causes metabolic aberrations and hidgut acidosis

23

most common site of gastric ulcers

non-glandular mucosa b/c it doesn't have protective mechs from HCl prod. by gland. mucosa

24

Correct way to feed horses

-majority of diet = roughages (high fiber, energy, protein)
-small, frequent meals
-don't overfeed NSC
-high quality protein sources
-gradual changes to diet

25

most starch comes from:

grains (i.e.oats, corn)

26

limit for starch digestion in SI

0.3% BW as starch per meal, and 0.5% BW as grain per meal

27

does microbial protein have value to horse?

NO. It needs to be met by diet

28

good sources of protein

soybean meal, skim milk, whey, casein

29

cool season grasses

timothy, orchardgrass, fescue, bromegrass

30

warm season grasses

bermudagrass, bahia, stargrass, pangolagrass

31

3 main forages used to feed horses

grass, legume, hay. Grass highest fiber, legume highest protein and Ca

32

legumes are high in:

protein, N, Ca

33

What is straw very high in?

fiber. Low in basically everything else

34

nutrient content depends on:

1) type of forage
2) stage of maturity

35

increasing plant maturity --> nutrient content

decreases. (i.e. crude protein, calories, minerals)

36

increasing plant maturity --> fiber content

increases

37

How to select a high-quality forage

-cut at mid-maturity
-lots of leaves
-not rotten
-green
+/- lab analysis

38

When should concentrates be included in diet? *

only when forage alone will not meet all nutrient requirements

39

concentrate def.

a feedstuff or mixture of feedstuffs that provide a more concentrated source of nutrients than forage

40

Horses that likely need concentrates

-growing
-pregnant/lactating
-exercise
-need to gain weight
-fed poor quality forage

41

most common cereal grains

oats, corn, barley

42

are cereal grains higher or lower in DE, starch than roughages?

higher

43

nutritional disadvantage of cereal grains

not well balanced, so you need to add additional protein, vits, mins

44

commercial feed

a fortified feed containing a mixture of feedstuffs

45

primary ingredients of commercial feeds

1) cereal grains
2) grain byproducts
3) protein feedstuffs
4) vit/min premix

other potential ingredients:
1) add. fat source
2) add. fiber source

46

what percent fat is considered high in horses?

8-10%

47

"fat-added" feeds have >__% crude fat?

5%

48

benefit of fat-added feeds

good for horses that require a lot of concentrate; reduces intake of starch

49

fiber-added feeds have >__% crude fiber?

9%

50

benefit of fiber-added feeds

good for horses that don't need a lot of extra calories or those sensitive to starch

51

protein in cereal grains is similar to:

grass hays

52

Which has most DE? oats, barley, corn, or grain mix

corn

53

Which has most protein? oats, barley, corn, or grain mix

grain mix

54

"Complete feeds" contain: *

forage, grain, protein, vits/mins. Must have a minimum of 18% crude fiber **

55

commercial feeds are sold based on:

crude protein content

56

selection of feed should be based on:

1) type of forage
2) requirements of horse

57

which is most digestible: textured, pellets, or extruded feed?

extruded

58

which vitamins are not made by horse? **

A and E

59

primary minerals of concern in horses:

Ca, P, Na, Cl, Cu, Zn, Se

60

T or F: EVERY horse needs free-choice access to a source of salt *

T

61

a complete mineral/vitamin supplement contains:

micro/macro minerals, vit. A,D,E

62

Probably need complete min/vit supplement when feeding:

all-forage diet, unfortified grains/forage, or <5lb. fortified commercial diet

63

horse "at maintenance" is:

sedentary, non-growing, non-pregnant, non-lactating

64

how to feed maintenance horses

-forage
-complete vit/min supplement
-concentrate PRN
-salt/water free-choice

65

ideal BCS of maintenance, working, and broodmares

maintenance/working:5-6
broodmares: 6-7

66

nutrients most affected by exercise

-water
-energy
-electrolytes (NaCl, K)
-vit E

67

how to feed working horses

-forage
-commercial fortified concentrate
-salt and water free-choice

68

why BCS 6-7 for broodmares?

-promote conception
-won't cause dystocia
-body stores for lactation

69

how to feed early gestation (1-6 mo.) horse

-similar to maintenance horse unless being worked or nursing

70

how to feed late gestation (7-11 mo.) horse

-good quality forage
-commercial fortified conc.
-salt/H2O
-moderate increases in DE, protein, Ca, P, and TM requirements

71

what stage of production cycle are broodmares bred?

2 mo. after foaling

72

what nutrient requirements increase during lactation?

DE (80%), protein (140%), Ca(200%), P(150%), TM (25%)

73

what to feed during lactation

-forage
-commercial fort. conc.
-salt/h2O

74

What life stage horse has the greatest nutrient requirements?

growing horses. Also have small GI tract, so need nutrient dense feed!

75

nutritional causes of developmental orthopedic dz *

-unsteady, interrupted growth rate
-excess energy
-Ca, P, Cu, Zn deficiency
-excess Ca and protein do NOT cause it!

76

benefit of creep feeding

allows foals to seek out their own food source w/o mare's access

77

when does mare's milk not meet all of foal's needs?

2mo.

78

when should you start feeding foal solid food?

2 wks

79

what to feed weanlings? (2yo)

-forage
-comm. forti. conc. (decreasing with age)
- salt/H2O free choice

80

upper end of horse's DM intake

2.5-3% BW/day

81

minimum forage to feed, in general

1% BW (ideally feed 1.5%)

82

max. feed concentrate per meal:

0.5% BW per meal

83

why should you not mix unfortified grains with commercial feeds?

dilutes fortification

84

as horses age, there is a slight reduction in the digestion of:

fiber, protein, phosporus