Flashcards in Section 4: Feeding Management of Horses (Warren) Deck (84):
Percentage breakdown of stomach, small intestine, and large intestine for horses
small intestine: 30%
large intestine: 62%
fxs of stomach
-start protein digestion
2 parts of stomach
-non-glandular (esophageal region)
-glandular (cardiac, fundic, pyloric regions)
secretions of glandular stomach
HCl, pepsinogen, mucus
fxs of SI
-enzymatic digestion of starch protein, fat
-absorption of sugars, aa, NEFA, vits/mins
fxs of LI
microbes for fiber digestion
4 segments of LI
cecum, large colon, small colon, rectum
insoluble fibers. How are these digested?
hemicellulose, cellulose, ligno-cellulose. slowly fermented in LI --> acetate, butyrate
Resistant starches and soluble fibers. How are these digested?
fructans, pectins, gums, micilages, galactans. Rapidly fermented in LI --> lactate, propionate
how are monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, starches digested?
enzymatic hydrolysis in SI --> glucose
neutral detergent fiber. Comprised of insoluble fiber and lignin
see table top of slide 3
5 common digestion disorders
2) gas build-up
3) hindgut acidosis
5) gastric ulcers
impaction is caused by:
blockage in intestines, usually at sternal/pelvic flexures or ileocecal jx
normal products of microbial digestion of fiber in LI
VFA, B-vits, vit K, heat, gas
what happens in gas build-up? What is produced?
rate of gas prod. exceeds rate of gas removal with rapid fermentation of NSC (non-structurable carb). lactic acid, drop in pH, lots of gas produced.
gas build-up can secondarily cause:
colic, stomach rupture, torsion/displacement of intestine
low pH in hindgut due to lactic acid prod. from rapid ferm. of NSC. Results in:
-endotoxins/inflamatory mediators -->diarrhea, laminitis
-reduced gastric motility --> colic
-reduced digestive efficiency
disruption of intricate network of blood supply to feet. Can be caused by nutrition and other factors
can happen secondarily to laminitis from tendons pulling up and weight of horse pushing down
nutrition-related laminitis is probably due to:
excess NSC intake. Causes metabolic aberrations and hidgut acidosis
most common site of gastric ulcers
non-glandular mucosa b/c it doesn't have protective mechs from HCl prod. by gland. mucosa
Correct way to feed horses
-majority of diet = roughages (high fiber, energy, protein)
-small, frequent meals
-don't overfeed NSC
-high quality protein sources
-gradual changes to diet
most starch comes from:
grains (i.e.oats, corn)
limit for starch digestion in SI
0.3% BW as starch per meal, and 0.5% BW as grain per meal
does microbial protein have value to horse?
NO. It needs to be met by diet
good sources of protein
soybean meal, skim milk, whey, casein
cool season grasses
timothy, orchardgrass, fescue, bromegrass
warm season grasses
bermudagrass, bahia, stargrass, pangolagrass
3 main forages used to feed horses
grass, legume, hay. Grass highest fiber, legume highest protein and Ca
legumes are high in:
protein, N, Ca
What is straw very high in?
fiber. Low in basically everything else
nutrient content depends on:
1) type of forage
2) stage of maturity
increasing plant maturity --> nutrient content
decreases. (i.e. crude protein, calories, minerals)
increasing plant maturity --> fiber content
How to select a high-quality forage
-cut at mid-maturity
-lots of leaves
+/- lab analysis
When should concentrates be included in diet? *
only when forage alone will not meet all nutrient requirements
a feedstuff or mixture of feedstuffs that provide a more concentrated source of nutrients than forage
Horses that likely need concentrates
-need to gain weight
-fed poor quality forage
most common cereal grains
oats, corn, barley
are cereal grains higher or lower in DE, starch than roughages?
nutritional disadvantage of cereal grains
not well balanced, so you need to add additional protein, vits, mins
a fortified feed containing a mixture of feedstuffs
primary ingredients of commercial feeds
1) cereal grains
2) grain byproducts
3) protein feedstuffs
4) vit/min premix
other potential ingredients:
1) add. fat source
2) add. fiber source
what percent fat is considered high in horses?
"fat-added" feeds have >__% crude fat?
benefit of fat-added feeds
good for horses that require a lot of concentrate; reduces intake of starch
fiber-added feeds have >__% crude fiber?
benefit of fiber-added feeds
good for horses that don't need a lot of extra calories or those sensitive to starch
protein in cereal grains is similar to:
Which has most DE? oats, barley, corn, or grain mix
Which has most protein? oats, barley, corn, or grain mix
"Complete feeds" contain: *
forage, grain, protein, vits/mins. Must have a minimum of 18% crude fiber **
commercial feeds are sold based on:
crude protein content
selection of feed should be based on:
1) type of forage
2) requirements of horse
which is most digestible: textured, pellets, or extruded feed?
which vitamins are not made by horse? **
A and E
primary minerals of concern in horses:
Ca, P, Na, Cl, Cu, Zn, Se
T or F: EVERY horse needs free-choice access to a source of salt *
a complete mineral/vitamin supplement contains:
micro/macro minerals, vit. A,D,E
Probably need complete min/vit supplement when feeding:
all-forage diet, unfortified grains/forage, or <5lb. fortified commercial diet
horse "at maintenance" is:
sedentary, non-growing, non-pregnant, non-lactating
how to feed maintenance horses
-complete vit/min supplement
ideal BCS of maintenance, working, and broodmares
nutrients most affected by exercise
-electrolytes (NaCl, K)
how to feed working horses
-commercial fortified concentrate
-salt and water free-choice
why BCS 6-7 for broodmares?
-won't cause dystocia
-body stores for lactation
how to feed early gestation (1-6 mo.) horse
-similar to maintenance horse unless being worked or nursing
how to feed late gestation (7-11 mo.) horse
-good quality forage
-commercial fortified conc.
-moderate increases in DE, protein, Ca, P, and TM requirements
what stage of production cycle are broodmares bred?
2 mo. after foaling
what nutrient requirements increase during lactation?
DE (80%), protein (140%), Ca(200%), P(150%), TM (25%)
what to feed during lactation
-commercial fort. conc.
What life stage horse has the greatest nutrient requirements?
growing horses. Also have small GI tract, so need nutrient dense feed!
nutritional causes of developmental orthopedic dz *
-unsteady, interrupted growth rate
-Ca, P, Cu, Zn deficiency
-excess Ca and protein do NOT cause it!
benefit of creep feeding
allows foals to seek out their own food source w/o mare's access
when does mare's milk not meet all of foal's needs?
when should you start feeding foal solid food?
what to feed weanlings? (2yo)
-comm. forti. conc. (decreasing with age)
- salt/H2O free choice
upper end of horse's DM intake
minimum forage to feed, in general
1% BW (ideally feed 1.5%)
max. feed concentrate per meal:
0.5% BW per meal
why should you not mix unfortified grains with commercial feeds?