Section Two to Total War pg 40 Flashcards Preview

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0

What was the combined population of the Central Powers?

144 million

1

What was the population of the combined Entente?

656 million

2

What was the combined military strength of the Central Powers?

25 million

3

What was the military strength of the Entente?

32 million

4

The Entente's combined GDP outweighed that of the Central Powers by what percentage?

60%

5

How many British troops were sent to France in August 1914?

100,000 men

6

How many men was Germany able to mobilize within 13 days?

2 million

7

In what British sector of government did participation in the war have many enemies?

In the British Parliament

8

What was the advantages possessed by the German army at the start of the war?

Better training, better officer to enlisted ratio and was well equipped

9

Because of the defenses along the French and German border the Schlieffen Plan called for an attack through what country?

Belgium

10

Who was appointed Chief of the General Staff in 1911 for France?

General Joseph-Jaccques-Cesaire Joffre

11

What plan did Joffre introduce at the basic French war plan?

Plan 17

12

What percentage of Germany's troops were stationed along the German and French border?

15%

13

What was the plan for the German invasion?

To race through Belgium, behind Paris encircling both the city and the French Army

14

How many men was Belgium able to field against the massive German invasion?

117,000 poorly equipped troops

15

Who had the most infantry divisions in the Entente in 1914?

Russia with 114.5 divisions

16

Who had the least infantry divisions in the Entente in 1914?

Britain and Belgium with 6 each

17

Who had the most calvary divisions of the Entente in 1914?

Russia with 36 divisions

18

What country had the least calvary divisions in the Entente in 1914?

Britain, Serbia, and Belgium with 1 each

19

What country had the most infantry divisions in the Central Powers in 1914?

Germany with 87.5 divisions

20

What country had the least infantry divisions in the Central Powers in 1914?

Austro-Hungary with 49.5

21

What country in the Central Powers had the most calvary divisions?

Germany and Austro-Hungary with eleven each

22

What Entente country had the most colonial troops in 1914?

Britain with 190,000

23

What country in the Entente had the least colonial troops in 1914?

France with 157,000

24

What Central Power country had the only colonial troops?

Germany with 7,000

25

What was the total number of infantry divisions fielded by the Entente in 1914?

218 infantry divisions

26

What was the total number of infantry divisions in 1914 in Central Powers?

137 infantry divisions

27

What was the total number of Cavalry divisions fielded by The Entente in 1914?

49 cavalry divisions

28

What was the number of cavalry divisions fielded by the Central Powers in 1914?

22 cavalry divisions

29

What were the Belgian's most impressive defensive works?

The fort at Liege and Namur, each comprising a 25 mile circle of forts and protected y heavy artillery emplacements

30

When did the city of Liege fall?

August 7, 1914

31

What guns destroyed the forts of Liege?

Krupp 420mm and 305mm Skoda's

32

The last fort a tLiege fell on what day?

August 16, 1914

33

How many days did it take Germany to defeat Belgium?

20 days

34

When did Namur surrender?

August 24, 1914

35

What had the Schlieffen plan originally called for when it came to the Belgian fortresses?

The use of one division

36

How many divisions did it actually take capture the Belgian fortresses?

Eight divisions

37

The Battle of the Frontiers lasted from?

August 14 to September 6

38

What was the composition of the French and German armies at the start of the war?

The French had 78 infantry and 10 cavalry divisions while the Germans had 76 infantry and 10 cavalry there were also 4 British divisions

39

How many men did France mobilize within the first few weeks?

1.5 million men

40

What did Joffre believe about an offensive strategy?

That it would open a path towards Berlin and force Germany to sue for peace

41

How much larger was the German force than the Belgian army?

5 times larger

42

What is a time delay fuse?

A fuse that can be attached to a shell that allows it to penetrate its target before exploding

43

What was France's response to the war?

On August 14, they launched four simultaneous attacks towards Alsace and Lorraine but were soundly defeated by the Germans

44

By what date did General Joffre recognize that Plan 17 wasn't working?

August 23

45

How many German generals resigned due to the failure of the Schlieffen Plan?

Moltke, Kluck and 32 others for a total of 34

46

Who commanded the BEF?

Sir John French

47

Who commanded the main French force that encountered the Germans?

General Lanrezak

48

What was Moltke's two mistakes?

He diverted troops from the right flank to Lorraine to attempt a grand pincer movement to surround Paris, the other was to deploy two army corps, 7 divisions or 90,000 men to the Eastern Front

49

Where did the BEF retreat to after the Battle of the Frontiers?

The other side of the Marne River

50

When did Joffre go back on the offensive?

September 5

51

What did Joffre use to transfer his soldiers to the front at Paris?

Railroads and six hundred Parisian taxicabs

52

How many guns were used in the Battle of the Marne?

3,000 heavy guns, which yes a shit load

53

Wh suffered the most casualties during the Battle of the Frontiers

Germany with 220,000

54

Who suffered the least casualties at the Battle of the Frontiers?

Belgium with 12,000

55

Who was von Moltke's successor?

Erich von Falkenhayn

56

What was con Falkenhayn's strategy?

To try to outflank the Entente to the west along the coast of the English Channel

57

What was the First Battle of Ypres?

A German attack that tried to break the trenches of the BEF along the coast but it failed when the Belgians opened up the gates of the Yesr River to stop the advance

58

How many casualties did the French suffer in the first five months of the war?

1000,000 million

59

What did the Battle of the Marne become known as?

The Miracle on the Marne

60

What saw the emergence of trench warfare?

The Race to the Sea

61

How many divisions did Germany leave on the Eastern front to defend against Russian advances??

13 divisions or 1/8 of the entire army

62

What percentage of the Russian army was deployed along the German border?

40%

63

What was declared in Russia to ensure quick mobilization?

Prohibition on alcohol

64

When did Russia launch its first offensives?

August 14, 1914

65

With in how many weeks did the mobilized Russian army outnumber the Central Powers?

Two weeks after the outbreak of the war

66

What was the dispersion of divisions of the Russian army at the start of the offensives?

46 divisions against Austria and 30 against Germany

67

Wh did Russia have most of their army ready to invade Austria?

Because public opinion wanted Austria out of the war, they could then liberate Ukraine and pursue interests in the Balkans and against the Ottoman Empire

68

What did Russians refer to the Ukrainians as?

Malorusskie or Little Russians

69

How was the Russian Army in East Prussia divided?

The 1st army under Pavel von Rennenkampf, and the 2nd under Aleksander Samsanov

70

Who stated the history will condemn me... but I have given the order to march?

Iakov Zhilinksii

71

How much did the Russians in East Prussia outnumber the Germans by?

Three to two

72

What was the first Russian victory against the Germans?

The Battle of Gumbinnen on August 20 when the Germans launched frontal attacks and lost 8,000 out of 30,000 men

73

After what defeat were German Generals Ludendorff and Hindenberg placed in command?

The Battle of Gumbinnen

74

What were two major advantages in the Battle of Tannenberg?

The lack of communication between the Russian armies and the Germans excellent rail network that allowed for the quick transfer of troops

75

Who didn't distribute code books in East Prussia?

The Russians

76

What were the two Russian armies separated by in East Prussia?

A region of thick lakes and forests

77

What fortress was in East Prussia that was attacked by the 1st army?

The fortress at Konigsberg

78

What was the Battle of Tannenberg?

When the German 8th army under Ludendorff surrounded and wiped out the Russian 2nd army under Samsanov

79

What were the Russian casualties at Tannenberg?

50,000 Russian killed and 100,000 taken prisoner

80

What happened to the Russian army after Tannenberg?

They retreated into Russia and continued to mobilize their army which prevented any quick German gains

81

What were the forces in the Austrian theater at the start of the war?

50 Russian and 11 Serbian divisions against 48 Austro-Hungarian divisions

82

What was the original plan for the defense of Austria?

For Austria to leave minimal forces against the Serbians while concentrating against Russia

83

What did Austria do instead of following their plan?

Austrian commander Conrad sent twenty divisions against Serbia for a quick victory

84

What was the German's response to Conrad's actions?

Force him to go back to the original plan

85

What happened to the Austrian offensive at the start of the war?

It failed when Conrad underestimated the Serbian army

86

Why was the Serbian army better than the Austrian army?

It was battle tested, conscripted a higher proportion of the male population than any other country, used mountainous terrain in defense and attacks, also recieved modern weapons from France

87

What were the November offensives in Serbia?

The Austrians captured the capital Belgrade on November 30, but lost it in a Serbian counterattack two weeks later

88

What was the course of the initial campaign against Russia by Austria?

Conrad attacked to secure Galacian mountain passes, the Russians launched a counterattack and captured Lwow on September 3, the capital of Galacia

89

What was the Entente's first victory?

The Battle of Lwol

90

What were the casualties for both sides during the Galacia campaign?

400,000 for the Austrians while 250,000 for the Russians

91

When did the Austrian fortress at Przmysl surrender

March 20, 1915

92

What cause the Germans to shift their focus to the Eastern Front?

The loss of the Austrian fortress at Pryzmel

93

What was one reason for the failure of a quick war?

The machine guns defensive capabilities

94

What German writer that the machine gun would unleash a storm of steel upon charging infantry?

German soldier/author Ernst Junger

95

Why were horses vulnerable?

They could be shot almost a mile away

96

How many rounds per minute could a machine gun fire by 1914?

600 rpm at almost a kilometer

97

What German Chief of Staff told the German Chancellor Theobald von Bethman-Hollweg that the war was unwinnable and proposed negotiating a piece treaty with Russia?

Erich von Falkenhayn

98

How did Falknehayn react to the rejection of the peace treay?

By taking a defensive posture on the Western

99

When did Falkenhayn order the construction of a formidable defensive network on the Western Front?

January 1915

100

How many troops surrendered at Przemysl?/

117,000

101

How long did the siege of Pzemmysl last?

200 days

102

What ethnic groups fired over the heads of the Slavic Russian and Ukrainian army?

Czechs, Slovaks and Slovenians

103

How many Austrian divisions were not involved in the fighting at the start of the war?

10 divisions

104

What was the problem with Austrian railways at the start of the war?

They were single track

105

What is the key to offensives?

Mobility

106

How much food did a horse eat a day?

22 pounds

107

Along what river did the German construct a formidable defensive line?

The Aisne River

108

What did the Germans incorporate into their defensive line along the Aisne River?

Concrete machine gun turrets, pill boxes, deep bunkers, several lines of trenches

109

The First and Second Balkan wars saw the lost of how much Ottoman territory?

4/5ths

110

The flood of what refugees heightened Ottoman anger against the Entente?

Muslim refugees

111

Who was the Ottoman Minister of War?

Enver Pasha

112

What German officer lead a military mission to Turkey in 1913?

Colonel Liman van Sanders

113

In September 1914 what did the Young Turks declare?

The unilateral renunciation of all unequal treaties

114

What two German ships were stuck in the Mediterranean when the war started?

The Breslau and the Goeben

115

What happened to the Breslau and the Goeben?

They fled to Turkey where they were bought by the Turks in exchange for two Turkish ships stolen by the British

116

What was the one point that negotiations between Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire were stuck on?

A grantee that Russia would not get any Ottoman territory at the end of the war

117

What brought the Ottoman Empire into the war?

Admiral Souchon led the Goeben, the Breslau and Ottoman ships in a bombardment of a Black Sea port, sinking a Russian ship on October 29, 1914

118

What did Germany hope to get out of an Ottoman Empire entry into the war?

An uprising by 140 million muslims in the British, French and Russian empires

119

How many men had Russia deployed in the Caucasus to prepare for Ottoman entry into the war?

170,000 MEN

120

What were the total casualties at the Battle of Sarikamish?

80,000 men

121

What was the Ottoman Empire's first victory?

The Battle of Gallipoli

122

Why did the Allies look to the Dardanelles?

They thought an attack would open a route for supplies to reach Russia, also Romania, Bulgaria and Greece could enter the war with the Entente

123

When did the Battle of the Dardanelles begin?

February 1915

124

What happened on April 25, 1915?

Allied forces landed on the Gallipoli peninsula

125

Who were ANZAC'S

Volunteer forces from Australia and New Zealand

126

What happened in September 1915?

Bulgaria joined the Central Powers

127

By December how many casualties did the Entente sufer in Gallipoli?

230,000 casualties

128

How many casualties did the Ottoman Empire take in Gallipoli?

300,000 casualties

129

What happened at the Suez Canal?

The Ottomans attacked two Indian divisions, the British counterattacked and failed, on April 29, 1916 Sir Charles Townshend surrendered the largest British force in history

130

What happened in February 1916?

The Russian Caucasus Army captured the fortress complex at Erzerum in five days

131

Who led the Arab national uprising that captured Mecca, a port on the Red Sea and Damascus?

Emir Abdullah-ibn Hussein

132

By 1917 Entente forces captured much of what area?

Palestine

133

When did Japan declare war on Germany?

August 1914

134

What port did the Japanese capture?

Tsingtao on November 7, 1914

135

Australia and New Zealand captured what islands?

Samoa, the Soloman Islands an New Guinea

136

What four German colonies were in Africa?

Togoland, Cameroon, German Southwest Africa and East Africa

137

What happened in German East Africa?

German Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck mobilized 3,00 German soldiers and 11,000 Askari who evaded a British force of 130,000

138

How many Australian volunteers were raised in 1914?

50,000 men

139

How many Australian volunteers served in the Great War?

380,000 men

140

When was the Royal Australian Flying Corps created?

In 1914

141

How many volunteers did Canada raise during the war?

550,000

142

What caused political tumoil and riots in Canada in 1917?

Conscription acts

143

How many Canadians were conscripted during the war?

120,000 men

144

How many conscripted Canadians were sent overseas?

50,000 men

145

How many troops were recruited in India?

1.3 million

146

What Indian declaration in August 1917 promised greater Indian participation in government?

The Montagu Declaration

147

In what French colonies did rebellions ignite due to conscription?

Algeria, Morocco, New Caledonia and Indochina

148

What was the most serious uprising in the French colonies?

The Grand Riviere uprising in 1915 to 1916

149

How many insurgents were involved in the Grand Riviere uprising?

160,000 insurgents

150

Why did the massive rebellions in Central Russia take place?

Due to the Russian conscription of the Kirgiz and other previosly exempt groups

151

How many Russian battalions were required to put down the Kirgiz uprising?

14 battalions and numerous Cossacks

152

How many million Muslims were in the world in 1914?

270 million

153

Where did Canadian conscription laws face strong opposition?

Quebec

154

What series of battles from January-April 1915 brought huge losses to the Austrian army?

The battles of the Carpathian Mountains

155

What were problems on the Austrian home front in 1915?

Rising grain prices and the multiethnic composition of the army

156

How many Austrian men were called to duty in August 1914?

3,000,000 men

157

How many casualties had the Austrians suffered by March 1915?

Nearly 2 million

158

When did Falkenhayn order the German armies on the Western Front to dig in and establish defenses?

November 25, 1914

159

What was the balance of forces on the Eastern front in May 1915?

109 Central Power Divisions to 100 Russian

160

What was the Gorlice-Tarnow Offensive?

An Eastern front offensive on May 2, 1915 that broke through the Russian lines and took 140,000 prisoners in two days

161

What were contrasts between the Eastern Front and the Western Front?

The Eastern front saw more territorial changes, was more fluid, had less railways and artillery barrages worked due to shallow trenches

162

What was the Russian defensive strategy in 1915?

To heavily man the front lines so when the Germans broke through they could rapidly encircling large amounts of Russian soldiers

163

By September 1915 what countries in the East had fallen to the Central Powers?

Poland, most of Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine

164

How many casualties did the Russians suffer in flanking maneuvers and encirclements?

1.4 million casualties

165

What did the German offensives that caused massive casualties in Russia become known as in Russia?

The Great Retreat

166

What did the Russians loose at the fortress of Kovno?

1,300 guns, 53,000 heavy artillery shells and 800,000 field artillery shells

167

How many Russian subjects fell under German control during the Great Retreat>

23 million or 13% of Russia's population

168

How many Russian officers had been lost by late 1915?

60,000 officers

169

How many Russian refugees were driven from Western Russia due to the Great Retreat?

6 million refugees

170

What happened to the Jews during the Great Retreat?

They were forcibly expelled, accused of treason, beaten, looted and killed by Russian Cossacks

171

When was the first three day riot in Moscow against Germans and foreigners?

May 1915

172

How did the Russians mobilize to support the war effort after the Moscow riots?

Factory owners, officials, and political figures worked together to coordinate the production of shells and weapons. Reactionary ministers were replaced with competent moderates

173

What did the Duma form in response to the 1915 Moscow riots?

A Grand Progressive Block

174

Who became the Russian War Minister in 1915?

Aleksei Polivanov

175

What agreement among the Allies was signed in March 1915?

An agreement giving Russia Istanbul and the straits at the end of the war

176

When did Italy declare war on the Central Powers and why?

May 23, 1915 due to the promise of Austrian territory and seizure of power by a right-wing government in Rome

177

How large was Italy's army at the start of the war?

1.2 million

178

How many casualties did the Italians suffer in the four battles along the Isonzo River in 1915?

235,000

179

What was the problem with Italy's army?

It was underequipped

180

How did Austria defend herself from the Italians?

Be taking a defensive posture along the mountainous border

181

Britain deployed more divisions and joined the French attack at Champagne in what battle?

The Third Battle of Artois

182

What was used for the first time at the Third Battle of Artios?

Chlorine gas, airplanes to locate targets for artillery and tactical bombing raids

183

What happened during the Third Battle of Artois?

The Entente broke the first line but were slaughtered by the Germans second and third lines

184

How long did the Third Battle of Artios last?

September 25, 1915 to October 14, 1915 a period of three weeks

185

What were the casualties for the Third Battle of Artois?

The French took 200,000 casualties, the British 50,000 and the Germans 60,000

186

How many casualties did the French suffer per square kilometer at the Third Battle of Artois?

2700 casualties

187

How did the Central Powers entice Bulgaria to join the Central Powers?

By promising an attack on Serbia and Macedonian territories at the end of the war

188

Where did the Germans focus from late 1915 to early 1916?

The Western Front

189

Despite the massive population advantage held by the Entente why was it not as great as it sounds?

Because many lived in far away lands in colonies

190

Why was the Entente advantage in men not lost in 1917?

Because the United States replaced Russia in the war

191

Why was the military forces not so much greater for the Entente?

Because Brtiain did not use conscription and thus lacked a pool of trained reserves

192

What was the advantage and disadvantage of the Central Powers being concentrated in one block?

Concentrated but was surrounded by the Entente

193

What did the French military planners do when the realized that Germany might invade thorugh Belgium?

Build defenses along the border but they underestimated the size of the German invasion

194

What did Joffre believe about Plan 17?

That by forcing French troops quickly onto German soil he could open the path to Berlin and force Germany to sue for peace

195

The German invasion of France was a race against?

Time

196

What were the Belgian's most impressive military assets?

The modern fortress complexes at Liege and Namur

197

What calbire of artillery could the forts at Liege and Namur withstand?

210mm howitzers

198

When were the forts at Liege and Namur constructed?

1888-1892

199

When did the German army enter Belgium?

August 4

200

What were the opening moves by the German commander at Liege?

A series of risky moves that caused heav casualties but led to the fall of Liege

201

How many forts were located at Liege?

12 forts

202

What inch calibre were the 420mm Krupp guns?

16,8 inch

203

How man large naval vessels did Russia have in 1914?

4

204

How many large warships did France have in 1914?

10

205

How many large naval vessels did Hungary have in 1914?

3

206

How many days of bombardments did it take before Namur surrendered?

3 days

207

Why did Joffre not sent any divisions to help out Belgium?

He wanted to keep them all for his offensie in the west

208

How many soldiers did the Battle of the Frontiers invovle?

2 million soldiers

209

How many casualties did the French and Germans suffer in Alsace and Lorraine?

200,000 each

210

What did Joffre after he realized his Plan had failed?

Transfer the bulk of his forces to the north to meet the invasion

211

How man ytroops did Moltke send to the Eastern Front to stop a rapid Russian march on Berlin?

2 army crops/ 7 divisions/ 90,000 men

212

What German army was exhausted before the Battle of the Marne had even began?

The right flank under Kluck

213

What happened to Serbia after Bulgaria joined the war?

It was defeated and her army evacuated to Salonika and Corfu

214

By when had trench warfare settled over the Western Front?

By mid-November 1914

215

When was the First Battle of Ypres?

OCTOBER 8-November 14, 1914

216

What was the key to the Franco-Russian Alliance?

Russia's ability to mobilize quickly enough to field an army sufficient to launch a rapid offensive against Germany

217

What was the goal of the initial Russian offensives?

To force Germany to send troops from France or open a path to Berlin

218

What were the German casualties at Gumbinnen?

8,000 out of 30,000

219

After Gumbinnen what was the time period between Tannenburg and the Masurian lakes?

3 weeks

220

When did Germany transfer forces in the 8th army south to attack the Russian second army?

On August 24

221

What did the Russians do in September of 1914 to the Germans?

Laucnh an offensive that took back some territroy but suffered heavy casualties

222

Why did Conrad attack Serbia?

Because war with Serbia was popular in Austria

223

What happened when Conrad transferred his divisions back to the plan?

The single track railways and rigid mobilization schedule slowed the troops movements

224

How many divisions did not fight as a result of Conrad disobeying the German plan?

10 divisions

225

The offensive into Serbia came at a great cost in terms of?

Soldier casualties and atrocities commmitted against civlians by both sides

226

When did the Austrians capture Belgrade?

On November 30, 1914

227

What was the balance of forces in August 1914 against Austria?

750,000 Russians against 500,000 Austrians

228

What kind of captial was Lwow?

A provincial captial

229

When was Lwow captured by Russia?

On September 3, 1914

230

What groups in the Austrian army fired over the heads of the Russians, surrendered or deserted?

Czechs, Slovaks, Slovenians

231

In the first month of the war what territories of Austria had Russia captured?

Almost the entire province of Galacia bringing nearly all the Ukranians and large nubers of Poles and Jews

232

How many Austrian troops were at Przemysl?

117,000 troops

233

How long was the seige of Przemysl?

200 days

234

What caused the Austrians at Przemsyl to surrender?

The arrival of artillery capable of breaking down the walls

235

How long was the Western Front trench line?

750 kilometers

236

How long did it take the Germans to win decesive battles during the Franco-Prussian War?

6 weeks

237

When was the machine gun developed?

1880's to 1890's

238

What type of barrels did machine guns use?

Air-cooled

239

What is the key to offensives?

Mobility

240

How far away could horses be killed?

A mile for a good infantryman and three miles for artillery

241

What improvements came to artillery before the war?

Brakes holding artillery in place after firing, and Krupp and Skoda making greater sized, ranged and explosive guns

242

What could artillery not penetrate?

Earthen defenses

243

When did Falkenhayn tell the Chancellor that the war was unwinnable?

October 1914

244

When did Falkenhayn order even more formidable defenses along the Western Front?

January 1915

245

When did the Young Turks declare the renounciations of all unequal treaties?

In September 1914

246

Who argued that the decisions for war in the Ottoman Empire involved the public and not just Enver Pasha?

Mustafa Aksakai

247

When did the Ottomans attack the Russians in the Black Sea?

October 29, 1914

248

What valley did the Russians take at the start of the war against the Ottomans?

The Aras Valley just east of Erzerum

249

When did the Ottomans attack the Russians in the Caucauses at the start of the war?

December 22, 1914

250

Why did Enver attack the Caucasus?

Because he thought an ivasion of the Caucasus would spark uprisings among Muslim and Turkic groups in the region

251

How cold did it get in the Caucasus?

-30 Farenheit

252

For how many days did Enver fight the Russians in the Caucasus?

For ten days before he retreated

253

When did the Ottomans finally force Russia out of their territory?

After 1917 and the subsequent Civil War

254

When was the Battle of Gallipoli?

February-December 1915

255

What man pushed hard for the British Navy to help the attack in the Dardanelles?

Winston Churchill, First Lord of the British Admiralty

256

When did the Ottomans attack the Suez Canal?

In 1915 and 1916

257

Who controlled Egypt?

Occupied by Britain but under the religous authority of the Ottoman Sultan formally

258

Where did British Middle Eastern offensives fail in 1916?

In the Sinai and at Baghdad

259

Where did Townshend surrender the largest British force ever?

At Baghdad

260

When did Townshend oversee the largest capitulation in British history?

April 29, 1916

261

Where did the Ottomans fight the Entente?

In the Sinai Desert, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus and the Middle East

262

Worries about Muslim mobilization caused Entente leaders to do what?

Keep large numbers of colonial troops at home to guard against uprisings rather than fighting in Europe

263

By October 1918 what had Emir Abdullah ibn-Hussein entered?

Damascus

264

The Young Turk leaders had a percieved bias against whom?

Arabs

265

What was the balance of forces at Tsingtao?

50,000 Japanese troops and 3,000 German marines

266

What German territories was Japan allowed in a treaty with Britain?

The colonies north of the equator

267

What modern day country's did German East Africa encompass?

Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzinia

268

Why did British and German governers not want to fight in Africa?

Because they assumed tha arming the native African populations was not in their best interests and it would bring problems later on down the road

269

How much bigger is German East Africa than France?

1.5x

270

In what dominions did the war inspire support for Britain?

New Zealand, Canada, Austalia, South Africa and Newfoundland

271

What dominion mobilized the most number of troops?

India with 1.68 million

272

What colony/dominion raised the least number of troops?

The Belgian Congo at 25,000

273

What dominion suffered the most dead?

India

274

What dominion suffered the least dead?

South Africa at 19,000

275

What dominion suffered the most casualties?

Canada and Australia at 209,000 each

276

What dominion suffered the leas casualties?

South Africa 7,000

277

What dominion sent the most troops overseas?

iNDIA AT 1.096 MILLION

278

What was the order from highest to lowest number of troop smobilized?

Inida, Canada, French colonial, South African, New Zealand and Belgian Congo

279

What was the order from most to least number of troops sent overseas by the Entente domonions?

India, French colonial, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand

280

What was the order for total casualties form highest to lowest of the Entente dominions?

Canada and Australia, India, New Zealand and South Africa

281

What was the order from highest to lowest of the total killed of dominion troops from the Entente?

French colonial, Indian, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa

282

Where did Australian forces serve?

Egypt and Gallipoli

283

Where did the RAFC ariplanes play a significant role?

In the Middle East and the Western Front

284

Did the Indians ever introduce conscription?

No

285

Where did Indian troops serve?

Guarding British oil installations and the Suez Canal, fighting against the Ottoman Empire and in German East Africa

286

What caused colonies to demand greater control over their own affairs?

National pride in battlefield exploitscombined with disillusionment with Britain for the incredible human and economic costs of the war

287

How many colonial troops served in the Middle East and Europe?

Nearly 2 million

288

What wars had Indians not been allowed to fight in?

The Crimean and Boer wars

289

What did Allied colonies supply in addition to troops?

Raw materials and tax revenues

290

How man natives and Slavic settlers were killed in Central Asia due to the rebellion?

Tens of thousands of natives and 3,600 Slavic settlers

291

When was the machine gun developed?

1880's to 1890's

292

What type of barrels did machine guns use?

Air-cooled

293

What is the key to offensives?

Mobility

294

How far away could horses be killed?

A mile for a good infantryman and three miles for artillery

295

What improvements came to artillery before the war?

Brakes holding artillery in place after firing, and Krupp and Skoda making greater sized, ranged and explosive guns

296

What could artillery not penetrate?

Earthen defenses

297

When did Falkenhayn tell the Chancellor that the war was unwinnable?

October 1914

298

When did Falkenhayn order even more formidable defenses along the Western Front?

January 1915

299

When did the Young Turks declare the renounciations of all unequal treaties?

In September 1914

300

Who argued that the decisions for war in the Ottoman Empire involved the public and not just Enver Pasha?

Mustafa Aksakai

301

When did the Ottomans attack the Russians in the Black Sea?

October 29, 1914

302

What valley did the Russians take at the start of the war against the Ottomans?

The Aras Valley just east of Erzerum

303

When did the Ottomans attack the Russians in the Caucauses at the start of the war?

December 22, 1914

304

Why did Enver attack the Caucasus?

Because he thought an ivasion of the Caucasus would spark uprisings among Muslim and Turkic groups in the region

305

How cold did it get in the Caucasus?

-30 Farenheit

306

For how many days did Enver fight the Russians in the Caucasus?

For ten days before he retreated

307

When did the Ottomans finally force Russia out of their territory?

After 1917 and the subsequent Civil War

308

When was the Battle of Gallipoli?

February-December 1915

309

What man pushed hard for the British Navy to help the attack in the Dardanelles?

Winston Churchill, First Lord of the British Admiralty

310

When did the Ottomans attack the Suez Canal?

In 1915 and 1916

311

Who controlled Egypt?

Occupied by Britain but under the religous authority of the Ottoman Sultan formally

312

Where did British Middle Eastern offensives fail in 1916?

In the Sinai and at Baghdad

313

Where did Townshend surrender the largest British force ever?

At Baghdad

314

When did Townshend oversee the largest capitulation in British history?

April 29, 1916

315

Where did the Ottomans fight the Entente?

In the Sinai Desert, Mesopotamia, the Caucasus and the Middle East

316

Worries about Muslim mobilization caused Entente leaders to do what?

Keep large numbers of colonial troops at home to guard against uprisings rather than fighting in Europe

317

By October 1918 what had Emir Abdullah ibn-Hussein entered?

Damascus

318

The Young Turk leaders had a percieved bias against whom?

Arabs

319

What was the balance of forces at Tsingtao?

50,000 Japanese troops and 3,000 German marines

320

What German territories was Japan allowed in a treaty with Britain?

The colonies north of the equator

321

What modern day country's did German East Africa encompass?

Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzinia

322

Why did British and German governers not want to fight in Africa?

Because they assumed tha arming the native African populations was not in their best interests and it would bring problems later on down the road

323

How much bigger is German East Africa than France?

1.5x

324

In what dominions did the war inspire support for Britain?

New Zealand, Canada, Austalia, South Africa and Newfoundland

325

What dominion mobilized the most number of troops?

India with 1.68 million

326

What colony/dominion raised the least number of troops?

The Belgian Congo at 25,000

327

What dominion suffered the most dead?

India

328

What dominion suffered the least dead?

South Africa at 19,000

329

What dominion suffered the most casualties?

Canada and Australia at 209,000 each

330

What dominion suffered the leas casualties?

South Africa 7,000

331

What dominion sent the most troops overseas?

iNDIA AT 1.096 MILLION

332

What was the order from highest to lowest number of troop smobilized?

Inida, Canada, French colonial, South African, New Zealand and Belgian Congo

333

What was the order from most to least number of troops sent overseas by the Entente domonions?

India, French colonial, Canada, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand

334

What was the order for total casualties form highest to lowest of the Entente dominions?

Canada and Australia, India, New Zealand and South Africa

335

What was the order from highest to lowest of the total killed of dominion troops from the Entente?

French colonial, Indian, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and South Africa

336

Where did Australian forces serve?

Egypt and Gallipoli

337

Where did the RAFC ariplanes play a significant role?

In the Middle East and the Western Front

338

Did the Indians ever introduce conscription?

No

339

Where did Indian troops serve?

Guarding British oil installations and the Suez Canal, fighting against the Ottoman Empire and in German East Africa

340

What caused colonies to demand greater control over their own affairs?

National pride in battlefield exploitscombined with disillusionment with Britain for the incredible human and economic costs of the war

341

How many colonial troops served in the Middle East and Europe?

Nearly 2 million

342

What wars had Indians not been allowed to fight in?

The Crimean and Boer wars

343

What did Allied colonies supply in addition to troops?

Raw materials and tax revenues

344

How man natives and Slavic settlers were killed in Central Asia due to the rebellion?

Tens of thousands of natives and 3,600 Slavic settlers

345

What groups did the new Austrian=Hungarian army commanders have problems communicating with?

Czechs, Poles and krainians as well as Slovenes

346

Who stated that by the spring of 1915 the Austrian army was on the verge of disintegration which could only be halted by German intervention?

Norman Stone

347

Why were railways a problem on the Eastern Front?

They were thin and overburdened so they had a hard time moving troops quickly

348

How many Russian prisoners were taken during the Great Retreat?

1 million soldiers

349

By the fall of 1915 the Russian army was what proportion of its 1914 level?

It was reduced to a third

350

What were the only parties not to participate in the Progressive Bloc in the Russian Duma?

The extreme fringe parties

351

How much did Russian artillery shell production change from May to November in 1915?

By 4x as much shells

352

Overall military output in Russia doubled between?

1915 and 1916

353

When did Russia pledge to the Allies not to make a seperate peace?

September 5, 1914

354

How long was Italy's border with Hungary?

600 kilometers log

355

Was chlorine gas succesfull at Artois?

No

356

When was the Battle of Artois?

September 25, 1915 to October 14, 1915

357

Where did the Serbian army evacuate after being attacked by Bulgaria?

To Corfu then Salonika in Greece

358

When did Germany switch focuss back to the Western Front?

Late fall of 1915 and early 1916

359

Where did the Serbian army evacuate after being attacked by Bulgaria?

To Corfu then Salonika in Greece

360

When did Germany switch focuss back to the Western Front?

Late fall of 1915 and early 1916