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Flashcards in Section Two Total War to end Deck (289):

What did historians argue about the offensives of 1915 were a result of?

The Allied strategies of relieving pressure on Russia and coordinating pressure on Germany


In the initial months of the war what strategy did the French focus on?

An offensive strategy


What did generals believe was the key weapon of trench warfare?



When did Britain introduce conscription?

In 1916


What is one of the counterintuitive facts about World War Two?

As the war continued the total number of men in arms grew


What was one of the central issues leading to an outburst of Irish nationalism in the Easter 1916 uprising?

The extension of British conscription to Ireland in 1916


When was Irish independence declared and recognized?

In January 1919 and recognized by the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 1921


What central power produced the most artillery shells?



What Entente produced the most artillery shells?

The United Kingdom


What central power produced the least artillery shells?



What Entente power produced the least artillery shells?

The US, we joined late


When were the new set of Russian conscription rules enacted?

September 1915 at the height of the German assault


The new Russian conscription rules lead to massive Russian uprisings where?

Central Asia with the Kiriz and other nomadic and Muslim tribes


By when had the forces of both sides decide that the crucial battles would be fought on the Western Front?

By the end of 1915


When did the Entente meet to decide on coordinating offensives focusing on a major push at the Somme?

At Chantilly in December 1915


What was the German Chief of Staff Falkenhayn's decision in December 1915?

To lure the French into the exposed salient of Verdun


What did Joffre think about Verdun?

It should be abandoned


What did the French Prime Minister Aristide Briand think about Verdun?

It was important to hold for moral purposes


When did the Germans open the battle of Verdun?

February 21, 1916 with 1,200 guns


How many railway wagons of shells were rained on the French in a single day by the German 5th army?

17 1/2 wagons


Between February and December 1916 how many shells and how many million tons of steel were launched at both sides during the Battle of Verdun?

10 million artillery shells and 1.35 million tons of steel


What two new weapons were used by the Germans during the Battle of Verdun?

Flamethroweres and phosgene gas


What did the Germans hope would happen to the French after the railway to Verdun was destroyed?

That the French would be undersupplied and under-equipped


What was the French response to the Germans attempt to destroy the railway at Verdun?

Mobilize 3,400 trucks and 9,000 men to keep moving supplies


At the peak of the French supply system at Verdun, how any trucks were being used a day?

1700 trucks


According to what historian did the Germans suffer what number of casualties from artillery at Verdun?

According to Historian Holger Herwig that 58% of German deaths were attributed to artilley


58% of all German casualties at Verdun were because of what weapon?



What percentage of casualties of Verdun were deaths?



What were the German goals for the Battle of Verdun and were they successful?

To take Verdun or inflict much higher casualties on the French than the Germans but neither were succesful


Why was Verdun actually less deadly than the battles of 1914 and 1915?

Due to defensive innovations such as better gas, better trenches and multiple layers of trenches to halt breakthroughs, also charges weren't ordered until after a massive artillery bombardment


By May 26, 1916 how many French divisions had fought at Verdun and what were their casualties?

52 French divisions suffering 150,000 casualties


What did the Battle of Verdun cause in relation to the Battle of the Somme?

Joffre requested that Britain launch its own offensive to relieve pressure, also he had to reduce the number of French divisions from 42 to 22


How could the General Philippe Petain spared more troops for the Somme offensives?

By not using a rapid rotation system of troops that required large numbers of reserves


When did the Russians launch their attack in response to the Battle of Verdun?

March 18, 1916


What happened at the Battle of Lake Narcoz?

The Russians with 350,000 to Germany's 75,000; 3 times as many guns and a two day heavy barrage and attacked the Germans suffering 100,000 casualties to the Germans 20,000


What were the Russian disadvantages at the Battle of Lake Narcoz?

Their artillery did not have reliable targeting information and lack of coordination between bombardment and infary attacks


Who was Russia's most intelligent student of warfare?

General Alexei Brusilov


When the Tsar asked for ideas on a new offensive who was the only general who responded?

General Brusilov who asked for an offensive on the Galacian front with Austria


What did Brusilov do to ensure success in his attacks?

Dig sapper trenches close to enemy lines, used aerial photography to coordinate artillery strikes, hidden reserves, misinformation and plan an attack on a broad front


What was the proportion of troops on the Austrian front prior to the Russian offensive?

500,000 Austrians to 600,000 Russians who had more guns


Why was the Austrian side weakened before the Brusilov Offensive?

Due to the transfer of twenty German divisions to France and six Austrian divisions that went to Italy


How did the Austrian offensive in Italy in May 1916 go?

Very well, the Austrian took 40,000 prisoners


What was the result of the Austrian offensive in Italy in May 1916?

It forced the Entente to Russia to launch its offensive early. The Russian Commander in Chief Mikhail V. ALekseev to order Brusilov to launch his offensive a month earlier


Who was the Russian Commander in Chief in May 1916?

Mikhail V. Alekseev


When did the Brusilov offensive begin?

June 4, 1916


How did the Brusilov offensive go?

Excellent, the Austrians didn't know where to send their reserves, the Russian bombardment smashed through the barbed wire and the troops from the sapper trenches were able to get to the first Austrian trenches before they could recover


How many prisoners did the Russians take within a week of the start of the Brusilov offensive?

200,000 prisoners


How many casualties did the northern section of the Brusilov offensive give and take?

The Russians took 80,000 casualties and the Germans 16,000


What was the result of the Brusilov offernsive?

Eight Austrian divisions were transferred from Italy to the Russian Front also Germany sent troops to help the Austrian defense


How many forces were involved in the Somme Offensive?

13 British and 11 French Division


When did the Somme Offensive begin?

July 1 1916 with a week of artillery bombardments


How many guns were used and what was the proportion of guns to front?

1437 or one per every 17 yards of front


How many British shells were fired by the British?

1.5 million shells


What was the problems with British artillery bombardments at the Somme?

Couldn't hit the targets due to rapid expansion, massive amounts of barbed wire, destruction of surprise and German bunkers able to resist shells most of which were to light to destroy the bunkers


How many casualties did the British suffer on the first day of the Somme offensive?

57,470 with 19,240 dead or nearly 1/5 of the entire force


How did the Somme Offensive after the first day go?

The British commander Sir Douglas Haig launched 46 separate attacks over the next ten days resulting in an additional 25,000 casualties


Why did the British offensives at Somme fail?

The German defense in depth and local counter attacks


What was special about September 15, 1916?

The first time that tanks were used making 3.5 kilometers protecting the infantry before the broke down


Why were airplanes not effective during the Battle of the Somme?

The weather grounded the planes, aerial photograph, reconnaissance and data relay was not a very well developed process


How many casualties were taken by all sides at Somme?

The French took 194,500 casualties; the British 432,000 casualties and the Germans 230,000


How did the Battle of the Somme go down in history?

As a testament to the futility of the offensive in the technological conditions of WWI


What did Brusilov's success do to Romania?

Convince them to join the war


What happened to Romania?

Its 620,000 soldiers were wiped out by the Germans, Austrians, Bulgarians and Turks


What was the result of Romania's occupation?

The Central Powers gained over a million tons of oil per year, meats and timber. It also forced Russia to deploy 27 divisions along the new 270 kilometer enemy front


What did the Romanian entry into the war cause the Kaiser to do?

To replace Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn with General Paul von Hindenburg


Who was the cost of the Brusilov campaign to Russia?

2 million casualties with 1 million dead causing more Russian conscription


How many Russian casualties had the Russians taken by late 1916?

Nearly 2 million dead, 8 million wounded and 2 million prisoners of war


Who called the Somme the greatest military tragedy?

British Historian John Keegen


How many Austrian casualties were taken over the Brusilov Offensives?

Up to 750,000 casualties


With the exception of Valdivostok what was the only year round Russian open sea port?

The Black Sea Ports


What were the two northern Russian ports?

Murmansk and Archangel


What percentage of industrial production in Russia went to defense in 1913?



What percentage of Russia's industrial production went towards defenses?



How many modern battleships and battlecruisers did the British have at the start of the war?

29 modern heavy ships


How many modern battleships and battlecruisers did the Germans have at the start of the war?

18 modern heavy ships


What advantage did the Royal Navy have other than numerical superiority?

The German Naval Codes


Why was there no decisive sea battle?

Because the Royal Navy didn't want to risk its superior numbers and the Germans wanted to whittle down the odds before attacking the British Royal Navy


What was the dispositions of the navies during the First World War?

The British blockaded the North Sea, the Germans controlled the Baltic and the Russian navy hide in a Baltic port


Where was the most powerful German naval squadron outside the Baltic?

The East Asiatic Squadron under Rear Admiral Maximilan von Spee


What happened to the German East Asiatic Fleet?

The Emden sunk 15 ships before being captured by the Australian cruiser Syndey. Spee won the Battle of Coronel. Spee attacked the Falkland Islands and was ambushed by the British and he lost six of his eight ships


What was the onl German raid on Britain before the Battle of Jutland?

Admiral Franz Hipper tried to raid the British coast in December 1914 but he only narrowly escaped a British trap


What was the balance of submarines at the start of the war?

Britain had 55, the Germans had 28 and the French had 77


During what moth did German U-boats sink 4 British cruisers?

The month of September 1914


Which U-boat sunk three of the four British cruisers in September 1914?



What were the advantages of U-boats?

They could be quickly built and wer mostly invisable


What were the disadvantages of U-boats?

The submarines could't tell if a ship was a merchant ship or a warship so they shot all ships


When did Germany announce an expansion of submarine warfare to all ships sailing around the British Isles?

February 4, 1915


When did the U-20 sink the Lusitania?

On May 7, 1915; 1198 of 2000 people died of which 128 were Americans


What was the result of the sinking of the Lusitania?

Three days of anti German riots in London, British Columbia, Johannesburg and Moscow. German Chancellor Tehobald von Bethman-Hollweg ordered the German Navy to halt unrestricted submarine warfare in August 1915


When was the submarine blockade of Britain resumed by Germany?

February 1916


When was the Battle of Jutland?

May 31, 1916


What two sacred principles of international law did the unrestricted submarine warfare violate in the eyes of the United States?

The prohibition against restricting neutral trade and the threat it posed to innocent civlians


When was the submarine blockade of Britain resumed by Germany?

In February 1916


According to British official history, how many deaths can be attributed to the blockade?

773,000 deaths


By 1918 how much higher was the civilian death rate than in 1913?



What were Q ships?

Merchant ships that were heavily armed to sink U-boats


How were the British as guilty of violating international law as the Germans?

By blockading German, putting supplies on passenger ships and having their own merchent ships fly neutral flags


What was the German plan for victory over the Royal Navy?

To draw the British into a nest of waiting U-boats and minefields


Why did the Germans plan for the decisive sea battle not succeed?

Because the British had broken the German naval code


What was the Battle of Jutland?

A massive naval engagement of 250 ships with over 100,000 men. The British lost 14 ships including 3 battlecruisers and 6800 men. The Germans lost 11 ships including one battleship and one battlecruise and 3100 men


When did Admiral Scheer declare that fleet action was no longer an option?

On July 4, 1916


When did the Kiaser and the generals overwhelm the Chancellor and force the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare?

February to March 1916 and from February 1,1917 to the end of the war


What changed Wilson's mind about staying neutral?

The sinking of 3 American ships on March 15, 1916


What was the Zimmerman Telegram?

A diplomatic note from German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman that promised Texas, New Mexico and Arizona to Mexico in exchange for an alliance with Germany


What was the Russian factor in encouraging America to join the war?

Without Russia it was democracies versus the Monarchies and Despotic regimes


How much did Britain owe the United States by April 1,1917?

358 million dollars


On April 6, 1917 what countries did the United States declare war on?

Germany and an associated power, Austria


How many men were in the United States Army in April 1917?

108,000 men


What was the size of the US navy in April 1917?

The 3rd largest in the world


What did the Tsar do with his popular moderate ministers after the fall of 1915?

Replaced them with reactionaries


What mistake did the Tsar make with the army?

He traveled to the front to take direct command of the army


Who took over when the Tsar left the capitol?

Empress Alexandra


Why was Empress Alexandra disliked by Russia?

Because of her German background and her bearded mystic Rasputin


Who was appointed Minister of the Interior?

Aleksei Khvostov


Who was the leader of the fascistic right faction of the Duma?

Aleksie Khovostv


What was the response of the liberals and moderates during the war?

To form a grand Progressive block


Who led the Progressive Block?

The most prominent leaders of the Duma


Who killed Rasputin and why?

The tsar's cousin the Grand Duke Dmitri Pavlocvich and the son of the wealthiest aristocrat in Russia because of their revulsion to Rasputin and the mismanagement of the economy in December 1916


What did many Russians believe after the death of Rasputin?

That the monarch had become a barrier to the effective mobilization of Russia for war?


When did street protests over the shortage of bread and fuel breakT out in Russia?

March 1917


What was Russia's biggest economic problem?

The Tsar's prohibition of alcohol which caused the loss of a quarter of Russia's revenue


Why did Russia not have a significant market for treasury bills?

Because it had a small middle class population


How did Russia attempt to pay its bills?

By printing more money


The printing of more money by Russia lead to what?



How many British warships were lost in 1914 to U-boats?

6 warships


How many warships did Britain loose in 1915 to U-boats?

7 warships


How many warships did Britain loose to U-boats in 1916?

6 warships


How many warships did Britain loose to German U-boats in 1917?

12 warships


How many warships did Britain loose to German U-boats in 1918?

8 warships


How many warships did Britain loose to Germany in total?

38 warships


When did heavy snows disrupt both food and fuel deliverers to the Russian city of Petrograd?

In February 1917


When did the city of Petrograd announce that bread rationing would be implemented?

On March 2, 1917


When was bread rationing supposed to be introduced in the city of Petrograd?

March 14, 1917


How did the Petrograd riots start in March 1917?

People went out on the streets to get in the bread lines. Factories began to close due to fuel deliveries. The tsar sent the Petrograd garrison of 160,000 troops to fire into the crowds but they mutinied


Who became the new leaders of Russia after the Tsar's abdication?

The leaders of the Progressive Bloc from the Duma formed a Provisional Government and a Constituent Assembly to write a new constitution


What did the new Russian government declare to its citizens?

Full equality, freedom of the press and many other basic rights and freedoms


Why did the Russians believe that their army could fight better?

Because they were fighting for freedom


Who was the leader of the Provisional Government?

Alexander Kerensky


Who was directed to lead the Democratic Russia's attack and where?

General Brusilov on June 29, 1917


How was Russia prepared for a great victory at the second Brusilov Offensive?

They outnumbered the Germans 3 to 1. Heavy artillery 5 to 1


How did the Russian attack at the Second Brusilov offensive go?

Thirty mile advance but on July 6 the Germans counterattacked and took hundreds of thousands of Russians prisoners and officers who tried to stop the retreat were shot


How many Russian soldiers deserted in August 1917?

250,000 soldiers


Who did Kerensky appoint to restore discipline in the Russian army?

General Lavr Kornilov


What happened to General Lavr Konrilov?

Due to multiple miscommunications and other problems Kerensky became convinced the Kornilov was trying to overthrow him and had armed workers to arrest him


What happened when the Germans forces approached Petrograd?

Kerensky made preparations to move the capital to Moscow. However the leaders of the communist party formed a military-revolutionary Committee to defend Petrograd


What happened to the communist military-revolutionary committee?

The Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky gained control over this committee


When did the Bolsheviks conduct a coup d'etat?

On November 7 1917


What two decrees issued by the Bolsheviks ensured that the Russians wouldn't be able to fight the Germans?

The Decree on Land giving all land to peasants, and the Decree on Peace which declared that Russia had no attention of fighting further


What happened to the Russian army after the two communist decrees?

It disintegrated as millions of peasant deserted and rushed home to get the free land


Where did Germany and Russia meet to discuss peace talks?

At Brest-Litovsk


What territories did Germany capture after they went on the offensives in February 1918?

All of the Ukraine, and most of Belarus


When did Russia sign a peace treaty with Germany?

On March 3, 1918


What territory did Russia have to give Germany at the end of the war?

The Ukraine


When did the Allies agree to launch coordinated in attacks in 1917?

In December 1916 at Chnatilly


Who replaced General Joffre?

General Robert G. Nivelle


What was the strength of the British army in France by December 1916?

1.2 million men


What was the balance of forces on the Western Front in December 1916?

4 million men against 2.5 million men


What were several technological improvements by December 1916?

Special sensitive fuses that allowed them to explode on contact with barbed wire, better aerial photography and 132 French tanks


What happened during the Battle of Arras?

The British and Canadian forces launched an attack on April 9, 1917 under a creeping artillery barrage. The Canadian corps captured Vimy Ridge and the Germans rushed reserves forcing a battle that caused 150,000 casualties


What happened during the Battle of Chemin des Dames?

Neville launched an attack but the infantry ran into wire obstacles, machine guns and fresh German troops, half the tanks were destroyed the other half broke down Several kilometers were gained and 20,000 prisoners taken but within 5 days the French suffered 130,000 casualties


When was General Nivelle sacked?

April 29, 1917


Why was General Nivelle sacked?

Because of the losses at Chemin des Dames


Who replaced General Nivelle?

Phillipe Petain


What was General Nivelle's ideas on an offensive?

That he could force a rupture against the Germans


When did French units refuse orders to attack?

April to June 1917


How many French forces were affected by the mutinies?

68 French divisions or 40,000 troops


What did the French troops do during the mutinies?

Refuse to engage in another offensive but they were read and willing to defend France


What French General presided over restoring French army discipline?

General Petain


How many French soldiers were court-martialed and shot as a result of the mutinies?

3500 were court-martialed but only 49 were actually shot


What did Petain do in response to the French mutinies?

He suspended French offensive operations from June 1917 to July 1918, pursued a defensive strategy, focused on production, doubled leave time and awaited new troops from the United States


What was the Third Battle of Ypres?

A British offensive in July 1917 after a bombardment of 4 million shells. Three months of fighting caused 70,000 killed and 170,000 wounded, the Germans lost similar but had reinforcements from Russia while Britain was out for the rest of 1917


How many attacks had the Italians launched by September 1917 on the Isonzo River?

Eleven offensives


What was the average time delay between Isonzo River offensives?

One every three months


How many casualties were suffered by the Italians during their offensives?

Almost half a million killed


What was the worst battle along the Isonzo River?

The Eleventh Battle of Isonzo from August-September 1917 at 100,000 Italian casualties


What happened in October 1917 along the Italian Front?

Six high quality German divisions supported the Austrians and broke through with the use of poison gas and new tactics advancing 80 kilometers and capturing 275,000 Italian soldiers


After the Austrian/German offensive in October 1917 when was the next Italian offensive?

A year latter in October 1918


What regions of Russia were ceded to the Germans in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?

Finland, Poland, Ukraine, Moldova and the Caucasus's


How many German divisions were transferred to the Western Front after The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk?

60 German divisions


What was the balance of power on the Western Front in 1918 after the transfer of German divisions from the Eastern Front?

192 German divisions against 178 Allied divisions


How many American soldiers had arrived in France by March 1918?

300,000 soldiers


How many troops were in France by August 1918?

1 million troops


What was the balance of tanks, airplanes and artillery on the Western Front on March 1918?

4500 Allied airplanes against 3670 Germans, 18,500 guns against 14,000 and 800 tanks versus just 10


What was Operation Michael?

A German offensive on March 21, 1918 the first in nearly two years


How did Operation Michael go?

Storm troopers and tear and poison phosgene gas shells, heavy short artillery barges were used. The Germans broke through up to 40 miles causing British casualties on 40,000 on the first day


How many casualties did the British suffer on the first day of Operation Michael?

40,000 casualties


What was the bloodiest month of the war for Germany?

March 1918


How many more offensives did General Erich Ludendorff launch after the Michael offensive?

Four more offensives


How many miles from Paris did the Germans reach in 1918?

56 miles


When did the German Empire reach its greatest expanse?

Mid-July 1918


What were the total German casualties for the 1918 offensives?

800,000 men


What was happening to Paris in mid-July 1918?

It was bombarded by German Big Bertha long range artillery peices


What was the Hindenburg replaced by in 1918?

A much longer line which provided many opportunities for counterattacks


What happened to the German supply system in 1918?

It faltered under the blockade, domestic unrest and the successes of the offensives


What happened to hungry German troops in 1918?

It weakened their bodies causing them to become susceptible to flu


How many men did most German divisions have in the hospital due to the flue in late 1918?

2,000 men


How many United States troops were arriving per month by the summer of 1918?

250,000 troops per month


How many US divisions were in France by summer 1918 and how many more were on the way?

25 divisions in France and 55 more on the way


When did the final German attack occur?

July 15 at the Second Battle of the Marne


How did the Second Battle of the Marne go?

Badly for the Germans. The Allies had a complete set of German plans on July 13, defense in depth with a counterattack with artillery, tanks and airplanes plus American divisions


What happened to the strength of the German army by July 1918?

It decreased from 5.1 million to 4.2 million


How many tanks were used in the August 8 Allied offensive?

530 British and 70 French tanks


How many tanks were produced by both sides during 1918?

8,000 by the Allies and 20 by the Germans


How many airplanes were being produced per month in 1918 by both sides?

11,000 Allied airplanes and 2,000 for the Germans


When did the American army launch its first major offensive?

September 12, 1918 at St. Mihel with 2900 guns and half a million men


What happened on September 26, 1918?

French, Americans, Britsh and Belgians launched a massive offensive with tanks, airplanes and 123 divisions with 57 in reserve


Where did the first Allied breakthrough occur?

In the Balkans


What happened one day after the combined Allied Offensive?

General Ludendorff asked the Kaiser to sue for peace


What happened with the Allied attack in the Balkans?

The Allies sent troops to the Greek port city of Salonika in 1915 and in 1918 built 29 divisions with 700,000 men


What happened on September 14m 1918?

The Allies launched an offensive in the Balkans


What happened with the September 14 Allied attack in the Balkans?

Bulgarian troops mutinied after two days, riots broke out in Sofia, the worker and peasant councils declared a revolution put down by soldiers and police after three days, but the Allies were already on Bulgarian soil and on September 29 Bulgaria dropped out


What was the importance of the Bulgarrian surrender?

It severed the links between Turkey and threatened Austro-Hungary


Who lead Arab uprisings that distracted the Turks from the main battlefronts?

Emir Abdullah ibn Jussein


When did the Turkish government sign a peace treaty?

October 30 in Mudros


What was thee decline in Austrian civilian labor force from 1913 to 1918?



What was the decline in Austrian GDP per capita from 1913 to 1918?

It ell to 66% of the 1913 level


What was the problem at the end of the war between Austria and Hungary?

Hungary refused to send grain to Austrian civilians


What was the decrease in Hungarian grain exports from the pre-war level to 1917?

From 1.4 million tons to onl 28,000 tons


What was the Austrian response to grain shortages in 1917?

Requisitions and other policies that hurt incentives for farmers to produce more


What were Austrian civilian rations in early 1918?

Half their daily norm


What happened in Austria due to the food shortages?

Strikes, food riots and mutinies


How many workers were involved in the January 1918 strikes in Austria?

Approximately 600,000


What was the average weight of an Austrian soldier by the end of the war?

120 pounds


Where did Austrian sailors mutiny in February 1918?

Four thousands hungry soldiers at the naval base of Cattaro on the Adriatic Seae


Why was little food delivered to Germany form the Ukraine?

Due to chaos, social revolutions and disruption in transport


When was Conrad's last offensive?

At the Battle of Piave in Italy in June


What happened at the Battle of Piave?

The Austrians lost 140,000 men gained no ground and lost all their supplies causing 200,000 soldiers to desert during the summer


What destroyed half the potato crop in Germany in 1916?

A fungus


What was the death rate for the Spanish flue in the German army?

1 in 6


When did Ludendorff announce that the war was lost?

On September 29


Who took over as the Chancellor of Germany in October 1918?

Liberal Prince Max von Baden


What were the revisions to the German constitution on October 28, 1918?

The Chancellor and the Minister of War were made responsible to the Reichstag, the Reichstag's consent was needed for treaties, war, peace and officer appointments and dismissals


hen did Wilhelm II leave for the Netherlands?

November 10, 1918


How many years did the Hohenzollerns rule Germany?

504 years


When did Admiral Hipper prepare to launch a suicidal sortie of the German Navy?

October 22, 1918


How many super dreadnoughts were in the North Fleet?

5 super dreadnaughts


What happened with the German naval rebellion?

The sailors went to Kiel where they started a revolution and seized Hamburg and Bremen


When was a socialist republic declared in Bavaria?

November 7


Who declared a republic on the balcony of the Reichstag on November 9?

Philip Sheidmann one of the leaders of the German Social Democratic Party


Who was the leader of the Communist Spartacus League?

Karl Leibknecht


Who was named Chancellor of Germany

Social Democratic Party leader Friedrich Ebert


What did Ebert agree to do in exchange for taking control of Germany?

Not to fire the old elites in the officer corps, civil service and judiciary, restore domestic order and fight the revolutionary movement


How many weeks did World War One last?

226 weeks


What have French generals been scorned or doing?

Clinging to outmoded glorification of the heroic offensive


What was the order of shell production in 1914 from highest to lowest?

United Kingdom, France, German, Russia and Austro-Hungary


What was the order of shell production in 1915 from highest to lowest?

Russia, Germany, Britain and Austro-Hungary


What was the order of shell production in 1916 from highest to lowest?

United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Austro-Hungary


What was the order of shell production from highest to lowest in 1917?

France, Britain, Germany, USA, Russia and Austro-Hungary


What was the total shell production from highest to lowest?

France, Britain, Germany, Russia, USA, Austro-Hungary


What categories were exempt from draft at the start of the war?

Primary bread winners, men in strategic professions, skilled laborers, ethnic and religious groups and native populations


What is one of the counterintuitive facts about World War One?

That as the war went on the number of men grew in size


What exemptions did Russia have on conscriptions that were eliminated at the start of the German offensive in September 1915?

Primary breadwinners and several ethnic minorities


Did Joffre think Verdun was morally important to hold?



The massive bombardments at Verdun caused large amounts of?

Shell shcok and other debilitating psychological problems for soldiers of both sides


What countries had the greatest to least number of troops after mobilization in 1914?

Russia, Germany, France, Austro-Hungary, Italy, Bulgaria, United Kingdom, Serbia, Ottoman Empire India, United States, Britain


For troops mobilized by country from greatest to least?

Bulgaria, France, Serbia, Germany and Hungary, Russia, Italy, Britain, Ottoman Empire, US, India


From greatest to least what was the order of troops mobilized in November 1918?

Germany, Austro-Hungary, Britain, France, Italy, US, Ottoman Empire, British Commonwealth, India, Bulgaria, Serbia


In January of 1916 how many divisions did France plan to commit to the Somme offensive?

42 divisions


In February of 1916 how many divisions did France promise to contribute to the Somme Offensive?

39 divisions in February


How divisions did the French plan to contribute to the Somme offensive in April of 1916?

30 divisions


How many divisions did France plan to commit to the Somme Offensive in May of 1916?

22 divisions


What nations were unprepared to launch major offensives in the summer in 1916?

Britain, Russia and Italy


What country led the first major offensive of 1916?

Russia with a major northern attack against the German armies


here is Lake Narcoz?

Present day Belarus


On what front did General Brusilov ask to launch his offensive?

The Galacian Front


Why did Russia want to launch another offensive after the disasterous Lake Nrcoz ofensive?

Because of an Austrian offensive against Italy in mid-May


How close did Brusilov dig his sapper trenches to enemy lines?

Within fifty yards in some places


How many armies was the Brusilov offensive launched against?

4 armies


Did the Russian artillery at the Brusilov Offensive work?

Yes, the artillery took out most of the barbed wire and destroyed the first trench


What two regions did the Brusilov Offensive capture?

Galacia and Bukovina


Where was the northern Brusilov take place?

iN branovichi, present day Belarus


When did the northern Bruisilov offensive take place?

July 2 to July 8 1916


At the Somme that British alone had more guns than the Germans at what battle?

The Battle of Verdun


What was the problem with the Somme front prior to 1916?

That it had been unmolested and the Germans had laid a massive amount of barbed wire


How quickly did the British capture the German naval codes?

Within three months


When was the Emden captured and by what?

November 9, 1914 by the Australian cruiser Sydney


When did Spee' naval group sink two major British cruisers at the Battle of Coronel?

November 1, 1914


When did the Germans under Admiral Hipper raid the coast of Britain at Dogger Bank?

In December 1914


What did the British try to do to escape their ships getting sunk by U-boats?

Sail under neutral flags and disguise armed ships as merchent ships Q-ships


The Germans claimed that the sinking of the Luisitania was in retaliation for?

The Allied hunger blockade of Germany


What political giant favored war with Germany after the Luisitania?

Former president Theodore Roosevelt


In response to the sinking of the Luisitania unrestricted submarine warffare was suspended when?

August 1915


After restarting the blockade in August 1915 what caused the Chancellor to cancel it?

The killing of several American passengers onboard a French steamboat


Who convinced the Kaiser to allow the German surface fleet to fight the British

Admiral Reinhard Scheer, commander German fleet


How many hours did the Battle of Jutland last?

For 72 hours


By April 1,1917 the British were spending how much per week?

75 million a week


When was selective military conscription in the US enacted?

My 18, 1917


What year was the most devastating for Britian in seamen killed by U-boats?

1917 with 6,408


In what year did Britain loose the most merchant ships?

1917 in terms of tonnage, but 1916 in terms of ships lost