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Flashcards in Section One Deck (187):
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The Central Powers included the countries of?

The German Empire, Austro-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria

1

What countries were apart of the Entente?

The Russian Empire, the French Empire, British Empire, Serbia, Belgium, Japan, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Brazil, Romania and the U.S.A.

2

What percentage of the United States was killed during World War One?

.13%

3

How many were killed in the US during the war?

117,000

4

How many more people did the United States loose in World War Two than World War One?

3 times as much

5

How many people died as a direct result of World War One?

9 million people

6

How many citizens were killed during World War One?

6 million people

7

What percentage of people did Germany and France loose during the war?

3%

8

What percentage of the Serbian population died?

5.6%

9

What percentage of the Ottoman Empire's population died?

3.8%

10

How many people were injured during World War One?

15 million

11

How many soldiers were taken prisoner?

7 million

12

Who had the largest population during the war?

Russia

13

Who mobilized the most soldiers during World War One?

Russia

14

Who suffered the most dead during World War One?

Germany

15

What country suffered the most wounded during the war?

Russia

16

Who suffered the highest casualty percentage of troops mobilized?

France

17

Who had the smallest population during the war?

Montenegro

18

Who mobilized the least soldiers during World War One?

Montenegro

19

Who suffered the least dead during the war?

Japan

20

Who suffered the least casualty percentage of troops mobilized?

Japan

21

Total military casualties during World War One add up to?

30 million

22

What was the worst example of inter-group conflict during the war?

The Armenian Genocide

23

What was the estimate of the number of victims in the Armenian massacre?

1/2 million to 1 1/2 million

24

The bird flu epidemic of 1918-1919 killed approximately how many people?

50 million

25

Which was is argued had greatest historical impact?

World War One

26

What three nations repeatedly put down Polish nationalistic uprisings?

Austria, Germany and Russia

27

When did Germany unite a single country?

1871

28

What countries emerged after World War One from the old empires?

Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia and Poland

29

What countries did the Ottoman Empire loss in the century and a half before 1914?

Egypt, Sudan, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia

30

What other countries were lost during the 1910's by Turkey?

Libya, Albania, Macedonia and Thrace

31

What countries were lost by the Ottoman Empire after World War One?

Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen and Palestine

32

In what countries did post war revolutions occur?

India, China, Korea and Egypt

33

When did Russian generals force the Tsar to abdicate?

February/March 1917

34

In what countries did Communism gain a foothold in after World War One?

Hungary and the German state of Bavaria

35

What countries fell to fascist dictatorships after World War One?

Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal

36

Where did World War One begin?

Serbia

37

hen did the Austro-Hungarian army annex Bosnia?

1908

38

When did the First Balkan War occur?

October 1912 to May 1913

39

In the First Balkan War, Serbia allied with what countries to defeat the Ottoman Empire?

Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro

40

What happened during the Second Balkan War?

Bulgaria attacked Greece and Serbia and was defeated when Romania and the Ottoman Empire launched a counterattack

41

When did the Second Balkan War start?

June 16, 1913

42

Serbia's successes cause her leaders to believe what?

That they needed to unite all Serbians and lead a multiethnic South Slav state

43

When did Austria present its ultimatum to Serbia?

July 14, 1914

44

What were the terms of the Austrian ultimatium

All anti-Austrian propaganda to cease and Serbia would allow Austrian participation in the murder investigation

45

How much time did Austria give Serbia to accept the terms of their ultimatum?

48 hours

46

Why did Serbia reject the Austrian terms?

Because they believed that Russia would support them

47

When did Austria declare war on Serbia?

July 28, 1914

48

When did Russia mobilize its army?

July 30, 1914

49

When did Germany declare war on Russia?

August 1, 1914

50

When did Germany declare war on France?

August 3, 1914

51

When did Great Britain declare war on Germany?

August 4, 1914

52

In what order did the European countries industrialize?

Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Czech, Austro-Hungary, Italy and Russia

53

What revolution was the first to challenge the principle of autocratic monarchy?

The French Revolution of 1798

54

Austria moved from monarchy to constitutional monarchy after what revolution?

The Revolution of 1848

55

In 1871 Germany was ruled by a ?

Constitutional monarchy

56

In 1905 the Russian czar created what?

The Duma, an elected national parliament

57

In 1908 the Sultan gave power to what group in the Ottoman Empire?

The Young Turks

58

What is Realpolitik?

Realist foreign policy

59

What was engaged more than two major powers between 1815 and 1914?

The Crimean War with Britain, France and Russia

60

Kaiser Wilhelm II attempted to compete with Socialist parties for support by following an aggressive foreign policy against who?

Africa

61

Tsar Nicholas II attempted to win support through a wuick war against who?

Japan

62

What was yellow journalism?

Journalism that uses little or no facts and only sensationalism or nationalism to sell more newspapers

63

How did the press make it hard for leaders to break alliances?

By demonizing the other side of the alliance

64

Why did Britain not want to enter war with the Central Powers during the July crises?

Because they had no direct interest in Europe, their empire spanned an entire glove

65

What was the biggest threat to Britain's Empire?

Germany's rapidly expanding navy

66

The Russian Empire looked for new territory where?

By conquering of Istanbul and the Ottoman Empire

67

The German mission to the Ottoman Empire caused what?

A hardening of Russian attitude towards Germany who was interfering on their new territory

68

In 1783 Russia forced the Ottoman Empire to do what?

To accept Russian interference and special rules for protecting Christian minorities

69

What three countries repeatedly interfered in Ottoman affairs?

Britain, France and Russia

70

In the 1880's Germany established colonies in what two areas?

In Africa and the Pacific

71

What league published articles claiming that there were many Germans living in Eastern European countries?

The Pan-German League

72

France attempted to stop German unification how?

By declaring war in 1870

73

What two regions in France were ceded to Germany after the French defeat?

Alsace and Lorraine

74

When did Germany, Italy and Austria sign the Triple Alliance?

In early 1882

75

What was the Franco-Russian Alliance?

An agreement between Russia and France in 1892 to go to war against the Triple Alliance if each was attacked. Both countries were required to mobilize their reserves and immediately force a two front war

76

What Great Power could tip the power between the Franco-Russian Alliance and the Triple Alliance?

Britain

77

Tensions between France and Britain were widely resolved with the?

Entente Cordiale in 1904

78

When did Britain and Russia sign an agreement that settled the borders of their two empires in Afghanistan, Persia and Tibet?

August, 1907

79

Germany and France came into confrontation between their two navies where and when?

In Morroco in 1905 and 1911

80

hat was the Schlieffen Plan?

A plan by the Chief of the German General Staff Alfred von Schlieffen to defeat France by the 42nd day of the war and then turn against Russia

81

In 1908 Russia began a rearmament and modernization program known as?

The Great Program

82

In 1916 Germany believed that Russia would be able to mobilize her army in how many days?

30 days

83

Italy stayed neutral for what reasons?

Italy didn't want to fight Britain and France the two strongest navies in the Mediterranean and had constant territorial disputes against Austria

84

France helped Russia how?

By giving Russia huge loans to better prepare for war

85

What do total military casualties in World War One add up to?

30 million

86

What is the worst example of inter group conflict unleashed by the war?

The murder of Armernian men, women and children by the Turks in Eastern Turkey

87

In addition to the Turks what other groups participated in the murder of Armenian men, women and children?

Kurds and Muslim groups

88

Where did Turks lead Armenian citizens on long marches accompanied by mass killings and atrocities?

Through Anatolia and the Syrian desert

89

What are the estimates for the casualties during the Armenian massacre?

500,000 to 1.5 million Armenian deaths

90

Hunger and disease hit what country particularly hard during the war?

The Ottoman Empire

91

How many lives did the Russian Revolution claim?

8 million dead

92

How many people died in WW1?

15 million

93

How many people died in WW2?

55 million dead

94

Why is it argued that WW1 had more historical consequences than the second World War?

Because so many of the causes of World War Two can be traced back to World War One

95

What empires had the world been divided into before 1914 in Europe?

The Habsburg, Russian, German and Ottoman Empire

96

What helped the Russian, Habsburg, German and Ottoman Empires grow?

Royal marriages, wars and effective ruling strategies

97

How man wounded did the Entente suffer?

12.8 million

98

How many POW's did the Entente suffer?

3.985 million

99

How many dead did the Entente suffer?

5.38 million dead

100

How many wounded did the Central Powers take?

8.39 million

101

How many dead did the Central Powers suffer?

4.03 million

102

How many POW'S did the Central Powers suffer?

3.630 million

103

What languages were spoken in the Austro-Hungarian Empire?

Italian, Romanian, Ruthenian, Polish, Czech, Hungarian and German

104

What was the most spoken language in the Hungarian Empire?

German

105

What was the least spoken language in the Hungarian Empire?

Italian at 3%

106

What language in the Hungarian Empire was spoken by 6% of the population?

Romanian

107

What language was spoken by 8% of the Hungarian Empire's population?

Ruthenian

108

What language was spoken by 10% of the Hungarian Empire?

Polish

109

What language was spoken by 13% of the Hungarain Empire?

Czech

110

What language was spoken by 20% of the Hungarian Empire?

Hungarian

111

What language was spoken by 24% of the Hungarian Empire?

German

112

What was the most important national movement in Eastern Europe in the Russian, German and Habsburg empire?

The Polish national movement

113

What three kingdoms partioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in three partitions from 1772-1795?

Prussian, Austrian and Russian

114

What government did the Russian, Prussian and Austrian Empires overthrow and dismantle between 1772-1795?

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

115

Where had Poland enjoyed a great Empire for 500 years?

In Eastern-Central Europe

116

When was the second partitioning of Poland?

1792

117

What had the second partition of Poland been in response to?

A Polish liberal national uprising

118

The Polish national liberal uprising inspired by?

The French and American Revolutions

119

When did large-scale Polish rebellions challenge imperial rule over their country?

In 1831 1863 and 1904-1906

120

When did liberal national rebellions break out in Hungary, Italy and the German states?

In 1848

121

wHEN DID iTALY FORM A SINGLE COUNTRY?

1860'S

122

When did Germany form a single country?

1871

123

In the German Empire what percentage of the empire spoke German?

93%

124

What percentage of the German Empire spoke Polish?

6%

125

What language did .4% of the German empire speak?

French

126

What language did .3% of the German Empire speak?

Danish

127

What did .2% of the German Empire speak?

Lithuanian

128

What ethnic group was 51% of the Ottoman Empire?

Turkish

129

What ethnicity was 25% of the Ottoman's Empire?

Arab

130

What ethnicity was 8% of the Ottoman Empire?

Kurdish and Greek

131

What ethnicity was 7% of the Ottoman Empire?

Armenian

132

What ethnicity was 1% of the Ottoman Empire?

Jewish

133

What was the Ottoman Empire's population in 1914?

24,000,000

134

What religion was 83% of the Ottoman Empire?

Muslim

135

What language did 48% of the Russian Empire speak?

Russian

136

What language did 20% of the Russian Empire speak?

Ukrainian

137

What language did 6% of the Russian Empire?

Belarussian

138

What language did 3% of the Russian Empire speak?

Latvian, Lithuanian and Finnish

139

What language did 1% of the Russian Empire speak?

rOMANIAN

140

What language did 12% of the Russian Empire speak?

Turkish-Tatar

141

What caused the loss of Libya in 1912?

An Ottoman War against Italy

142

What was the Bolshevik party a faction of?

The Social Democratic Party

143

What did the Bolshevikcs claim the Russian Revolution was the first step to?

A global communist revolution

144

What were some conditions for the growth of fascist movements after the First World War?

Hyperinflation, unemployment and other economic difficulties

145

What did trench warfare demand?

Millions of shells and ammunition

146

What regions of the Hungarian Empire did the Serbians encourage nationalist movements in?

Bosnia-Herzagovinia and Croatia

147

What was Bulgaria disappointed in that caused the Second Balkan War?

The terms of the Treaty of London

148

wHAT SATE DID sERBIA WANT TO BECOME THE LEADER OF?

A south Slav, yugoslav state

149

How long had Emperor Franz Josef been on the throne in 1914?

For 66 yeaers

150

Why did Austria delay its ultimatum to Serbia?

To allow more time for the harvest to be brought in and for the French President, Raymond Pioncare's visit to Russia to be over

151

What terms of the Austrian declaration did Serbia reject?

That Serbian officials complicit in the investigation should be dismissed and that Austro-Hungarian officials should take part in investigations

152

In multi-ethnic empires the spread of literacy raised what questions?

The use of language on the shop floors, in government offices and in schools

153

How many revolutions did it take to establish French democracy?

Three

154

When did Austria devolve power to Hungary?

1867

155

When did Kaiser Wilhelm come to power?

In 1888

156

Why did Tsar Nicholas pursue a war against Japan?

Due to the strong revolutionary movement brewing in Russia in 1904

157

What war was aarguably caused by yellow journalism?

The Spainish American war in 1898

158

What islands did the US gain over the Spanish-American war of 1898?

Cuba, the Phiippines, Puerto Rico and Guam

159

What did Russian newspapers do during the July Crises?

Wip up enthusiasm for the idea of expanding the Russian Empire at the Ottoman's Expense

160

What role did Italy's yellow journalist play during the war?

They hyped up the cause of Italian-speakers in Austria and portrayed Austria as a greater threat than France

161

Where did the race for the colonies occur?

In Africa and Asia

162

When did Russia expand its territory in Central Asia?

In the 1860's

163

What type of ethnic group did the Russians want to ally ith in the Ottoman Empire?

Slavic Christians

164

What stopped Russian ambitions in the Far East?

The Russo-Japanese war 1904-1905

165

When did Liman von Sanders lead a German military mission to Constantinople?

December 1913

166

When was the Ottoman Empire on eo fthe greatest in the world?

From the 15th to 18th century's

167

What caused the Ottoman Empire to fall behind in military and economic strength?

Their late modernization

168

For what group of Christian minorities did Russia force capitulations on?

Armenians, Greeks and Serbs

169

When did Turkey enter the war?

October 28, 1914

170

What countries built large overseas empires in the centuries before the 1870's?

Britain, France, Spain, the netherlands and Portugal

171

Why did Germany not join the major part of the race for the colonies in the 1880's?

They lacked the naval power

172

Who lobbied for increasing German naval power?

The German Naval League and elected officials in the Reichstag

173

Where did the Pan-German League claim there were many Germans living?

In the Ukraine, Poland and Russia

174

Where did Germany believe the path to imperial conquest and world power status lie?

In the conquest of Slavic lands in Europe

175

What caused France and Russia to form an alliance?

The apparent fact that Germany's industrial and military strength was outpacing that of either country

176

When was the Franco-Russian Alliance signed?

In 1892

177

What made Germany hopeful that Britain would either join the Triple Alliance or stay neutral?

The tensions with France and russia over imperial questions ranging from Egypt to the Russian Far East and Central Asia

178

When did military staff from France and Great Britain meet to discuss strategy for cooperation in case of war?

In 1906

179

When did Britain and Russia settle disagreements over Afghanistan and Tibet?

In August 1907

180

Due to the strictness of the Schlieffen Plan military planners saw what as a declaration of war?

The announceemnt of mobilization

181

How did France prepare for war against Germany?

By giving Russia massive loans and building up defenses along the Franco-German border

182

When did Russia launch it's Great Program?

In 1908

183

What was the Russian Great Program?

A program to rapidly build up and modernize its military and transportation networks

184

When did German strategists think that Russia could mobilize in 30 days by?

1916

185

What were the flaws in the logic of German strategic thinking?

The involvment of Italy and the possibility of a British force in France

186

What was the weakness of the British army in 1914?

It was not supported by conscription, therefore did not have a large pool of trained reserves