Flashcards in Section One Deck (187):
The Central Powers included the countries of?
The German Empire, Austro-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, Bulgaria
What countries were apart of the Entente?
The Russian Empire, the French Empire, British Empire, Serbia, Belgium, Japan, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Brazil, Romania and the U.S.A.
What percentage of the United States was killed during World War One?
How many were killed in the US during the war?
How many more people did the United States loose in World War Two than World War One?
3 times as much
How many people died as a direct result of World War One?
9 million people
How many citizens were killed during World War One?
6 million people
What percentage of people did Germany and France loose during the war?
What percentage of the Serbian population died?
What percentage of the Ottoman Empire's population died?
How many people were injured during World War One?
How many soldiers were taken prisoner?
Who had the largest population during the war?
Who mobilized the most soldiers during World War One?
Who suffered the most dead during World War One?
What country suffered the most wounded during the war?
Who suffered the highest casualty percentage of troops mobilized?
Who had the smallest population during the war?
Who mobilized the least soldiers during World War One?
Who suffered the least dead during the war?
Who suffered the least casualty percentage of troops mobilized?
Total military casualties during World War One add up to?
What was the worst example of inter-group conflict during the war?
The Armenian Genocide
What was the estimate of the number of victims in the Armenian massacre?
1/2 million to 1 1/2 million
The bird flu epidemic of 1918-1919 killed approximately how many people?
Which was is argued had greatest historical impact?
World War One
What three nations repeatedly put down Polish nationalistic uprisings?
Austria, Germany and Russia
When did Germany unite a single country?
What countries emerged after World War One from the old empires?
Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Yugoslavia and Poland
What countries did the Ottoman Empire loss in the century and a half before 1914?
Egypt, Sudan, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania and Serbia
What other countries were lost during the 1910's by Turkey?
Libya, Albania, Macedonia and Thrace
What countries were lost by the Ottoman Empire after World War One?
Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Yemen and Palestine
In what countries did post war revolutions occur?
India, China, Korea and Egypt
When did Russian generals force the Tsar to abdicate?
In what countries did Communism gain a foothold in after World War One?
Hungary and the German state of Bavaria
What countries fell to fascist dictatorships after World War One?
Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal
Where did World War One begin?
hen did the Austro-Hungarian army annex Bosnia?
When did the First Balkan War occur?
October 1912 to May 1913
In the First Balkan War, Serbia allied with what countries to defeat the Ottoman Empire?
Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro
What happened during the Second Balkan War?
Bulgaria attacked Greece and Serbia and was defeated when Romania and the Ottoman Empire launched a counterattack
When did the Second Balkan War start?
June 16, 1913
Serbia's successes cause her leaders to believe what?
That they needed to unite all Serbians and lead a multiethnic South Slav state
When did Austria present its ultimatum to Serbia?
July 14, 1914
What were the terms of the Austrian ultimatium
All anti-Austrian propaganda to cease and Serbia would allow Austrian participation in the murder investigation
How much time did Austria give Serbia to accept the terms of their ultimatum?
Why did Serbia reject the Austrian terms?
Because they believed that Russia would support them
When did Austria declare war on Serbia?
July 28, 1914
When did Russia mobilize its army?
July 30, 1914
When did Germany declare war on Russia?
August 1, 1914
When did Germany declare war on France?
August 3, 1914
When did Great Britain declare war on Germany?
August 4, 1914
In what order did the European countries industrialize?
Britain, France, Germany, Austria, Czech, Austro-Hungary, Italy and Russia
What revolution was the first to challenge the principle of autocratic monarchy?
The French Revolution of 1798
Austria moved from monarchy to constitutional monarchy after what revolution?
The Revolution of 1848
In 1871 Germany was ruled by a ?
In 1905 the Russian czar created what?
The Duma, an elected national parliament
In 1908 the Sultan gave power to what group in the Ottoman Empire?
The Young Turks
What is Realpolitik?
Realist foreign policy
What was engaged more than two major powers between 1815 and 1914?
The Crimean War with Britain, France and Russia
Kaiser Wilhelm II attempted to compete with Socialist parties for support by following an aggressive foreign policy against who?
Tsar Nicholas II attempted to win support through a wuick war against who?
What was yellow journalism?
Journalism that uses little or no facts and only sensationalism or nationalism to sell more newspapers
How did the press make it hard for leaders to break alliances?
By demonizing the other side of the alliance
Why did Britain not want to enter war with the Central Powers during the July crises?
Because they had no direct interest in Europe, their empire spanned an entire glove
What was the biggest threat to Britain's Empire?
Germany's rapidly expanding navy
The Russian Empire looked for new territory where?
By conquering of Istanbul and the Ottoman Empire
The German mission to the Ottoman Empire caused what?
A hardening of Russian attitude towards Germany who was interfering on their new territory
In 1783 Russia forced the Ottoman Empire to do what?
To accept Russian interference and special rules for protecting Christian minorities
What three countries repeatedly interfered in Ottoman affairs?
Britain, France and Russia
In the 1880's Germany established colonies in what two areas?
In Africa and the Pacific
What league published articles claiming that there were many Germans living in Eastern European countries?
The Pan-German League
France attempted to stop German unification how?
By declaring war in 1870
What two regions in France were ceded to Germany after the French defeat?
Alsace and Lorraine
When did Germany, Italy and Austria sign the Triple Alliance?
In early 1882
What was the Franco-Russian Alliance?
An agreement between Russia and France in 1892 to go to war against the Triple Alliance if each was attacked. Both countries were required to mobilize their reserves and immediately force a two front war
What Great Power could tip the power between the Franco-Russian Alliance and the Triple Alliance?
Tensions between France and Britain were widely resolved with the?
Entente Cordiale in 1904
When did Britain and Russia sign an agreement that settled the borders of their two empires in Afghanistan, Persia and Tibet?
Germany and France came into confrontation between their two navies where and when?
In Morroco in 1905 and 1911
hat was the Schlieffen Plan?
A plan by the Chief of the German General Staff Alfred von Schlieffen to defeat France by the 42nd day of the war and then turn against Russia
In 1908 Russia began a rearmament and modernization program known as?
The Great Program
In 1916 Germany believed that Russia would be able to mobilize her army in how many days?
Italy stayed neutral for what reasons?
Italy didn't want to fight Britain and France the two strongest navies in the Mediterranean and had constant territorial disputes against Austria
France helped Russia how?
By giving Russia huge loans to better prepare for war
What do total military casualties in World War One add up to?
What is the worst example of inter group conflict unleashed by the war?
The murder of Armernian men, women and children by the Turks in Eastern Turkey
In addition to the Turks what other groups participated in the murder of Armenian men, women and children?
Kurds and Muslim groups
Where did Turks lead Armenian citizens on long marches accompanied by mass killings and atrocities?
Through Anatolia and the Syrian desert
What are the estimates for the casualties during the Armenian massacre?
500,000 to 1.5 million Armenian deaths
Hunger and disease hit what country particularly hard during the war?
The Ottoman Empire
How many lives did the Russian Revolution claim?
8 million dead
How many people died in WW1?
How many people died in WW2?
55 million dead
Why is it argued that WW1 had more historical consequences than the second World War?
Because so many of the causes of World War Two can be traced back to World War One
What empires had the world been divided into before 1914 in Europe?
The Habsburg, Russian, German and Ottoman Empire
What helped the Russian, Habsburg, German and Ottoman Empires grow?
Royal marriages, wars and effective ruling strategies
How man wounded did the Entente suffer?
How many POW's did the Entente suffer?
How many dead did the Entente suffer?
5.38 million dead
How many wounded did the Central Powers take?
How many dead did the Central Powers suffer?
How many POW'S did the Central Powers suffer?
What languages were spoken in the Austro-Hungarian Empire?
Italian, Romanian, Ruthenian, Polish, Czech, Hungarian and German
What was the most spoken language in the Hungarian Empire?
What was the least spoken language in the Hungarian Empire?
Italian at 3%
What language in the Hungarian Empire was spoken by 6% of the population?
What language was spoken by 8% of the Hungarian Empire's population?
What language was spoken by 10% of the Hungarian Empire?
What language was spoken by 13% of the Hungarain Empire?
What language was spoken by 20% of the Hungarian Empire?
What language was spoken by 24% of the Hungarian Empire?
What was the most important national movement in Eastern Europe in the Russian, German and Habsburg empire?
The Polish national movement
What three kingdoms partioned the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in three partitions from 1772-1795?
Prussian, Austrian and Russian
What government did the Russian, Prussian and Austrian Empires overthrow and dismantle between 1772-1795?
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Where had Poland enjoyed a great Empire for 500 years?
In Eastern-Central Europe
When was the second partitioning of Poland?
What had the second partition of Poland been in response to?
A Polish liberal national uprising
The Polish national liberal uprising inspired by?
The French and American Revolutions
When did large-scale Polish rebellions challenge imperial rule over their country?
In 1831 1863 and 1904-1906
When did liberal national rebellions break out in Hungary, Italy and the German states?
wHEN DID iTALY FORM A SINGLE COUNTRY?
When did Germany form a single country?
In the German Empire what percentage of the empire spoke German?
What percentage of the German Empire spoke Polish?
What language did .4% of the German empire speak?
What language did .3% of the German Empire speak?
What did .2% of the German Empire speak?
What ethnic group was 51% of the Ottoman Empire?
What ethnicity was 25% of the Ottoman's Empire?
What ethnicity was 8% of the Ottoman Empire?
Kurdish and Greek
What ethnicity was 7% of the Ottoman Empire?
What ethnicity was 1% of the Ottoman Empire?
What was the Ottoman Empire's population in 1914?
What religion was 83% of the Ottoman Empire?
What language did 48% of the Russian Empire speak?
What language did 20% of the Russian Empire speak?
What language did 6% of the Russian Empire?
What language did 3% of the Russian Empire speak?
Latvian, Lithuanian and Finnish
What language did 1% of the Russian Empire speak?
What language did 12% of the Russian Empire speak?
What caused the loss of Libya in 1912?
An Ottoman War against Italy
What was the Bolshevik party a faction of?
The Social Democratic Party
What did the Bolshevikcs claim the Russian Revolution was the first step to?
A global communist revolution
What were some conditions for the growth of fascist movements after the First World War?
Hyperinflation, unemployment and other economic difficulties
What did trench warfare demand?
Millions of shells and ammunition
What regions of the Hungarian Empire did the Serbians encourage nationalist movements in?
Bosnia-Herzagovinia and Croatia
What was Bulgaria disappointed in that caused the Second Balkan War?
The terms of the Treaty of London
wHAT SATE DID sERBIA WANT TO BECOME THE LEADER OF?
A south Slav, yugoslav state
How long had Emperor Franz Josef been on the throne in 1914?
For 66 yeaers
Why did Austria delay its ultimatum to Serbia?
To allow more time for the harvest to be brought in and for the French President, Raymond Pioncare's visit to Russia to be over
What terms of the Austrian declaration did Serbia reject?
That Serbian officials complicit in the investigation should be dismissed and that Austro-Hungarian officials should take part in investigations
In multi-ethnic empires the spread of literacy raised what questions?
The use of language on the shop floors, in government offices and in schools
How many revolutions did it take to establish French democracy?
When did Austria devolve power to Hungary?
When did Kaiser Wilhelm come to power?
Why did Tsar Nicholas pursue a war against Japan?
Due to the strong revolutionary movement brewing in Russia in 1904
What war was aarguably caused by yellow journalism?
The Spainish American war in 1898
What islands did the US gain over the Spanish-American war of 1898?
Cuba, the Phiippines, Puerto Rico and Guam
What did Russian newspapers do during the July Crises?
Wip up enthusiasm for the idea of expanding the Russian Empire at the Ottoman's Expense
What role did Italy's yellow journalist play during the war?
They hyped up the cause of Italian-speakers in Austria and portrayed Austria as a greater threat than France
Where did the race for the colonies occur?
In Africa and Asia
When did Russia expand its territory in Central Asia?
In the 1860's
What type of ethnic group did the Russians want to ally ith in the Ottoman Empire?
What stopped Russian ambitions in the Far East?
The Russo-Japanese war 1904-1905
When did Liman von Sanders lead a German military mission to Constantinople?
When was the Ottoman Empire on eo fthe greatest in the world?
From the 15th to 18th century's
What caused the Ottoman Empire to fall behind in military and economic strength?
Their late modernization
For what group of Christian minorities did Russia force capitulations on?
Armenians, Greeks and Serbs
When did Turkey enter the war?
October 28, 1914
What countries built large overseas empires in the centuries before the 1870's?
Britain, France, Spain, the netherlands and Portugal
Why did Germany not join the major part of the race for the colonies in the 1880's?
They lacked the naval power
Who lobbied for increasing German naval power?
The German Naval League and elected officials in the Reichstag
Where did the Pan-German League claim there were many Germans living?
In the Ukraine, Poland and Russia
Where did Germany believe the path to imperial conquest and world power status lie?
In the conquest of Slavic lands in Europe
What caused France and Russia to form an alliance?
The apparent fact that Germany's industrial and military strength was outpacing that of either country
When was the Franco-Russian Alliance signed?
What made Germany hopeful that Britain would either join the Triple Alliance or stay neutral?
The tensions with France and russia over imperial questions ranging from Egypt to the Russian Far East and Central Asia
When did military staff from France and Great Britain meet to discuss strategy for cooperation in case of war?
When did Britain and Russia settle disagreements over Afghanistan and Tibet?
In August 1907
Due to the strictness of the Schlieffen Plan military planners saw what as a declaration of war?
The announceemnt of mobilization
How did France prepare for war against Germany?
By giving Russia massive loans and building up defenses along the Franco-German border
When did Russia launch it's Great Program?
What was the Russian Great Program?
A program to rapidly build up and modernize its military and transportation networks
When did German strategists think that Russia could mobilize in 30 days by?
What were the flaws in the logic of German strategic thinking?
The involvment of Italy and the possibility of a British force in France