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Flashcards in SS Glossery Deck (45):
0

Defien Alsace and Lorraine?

Two French provinces with mixed German and French populations that were taken by Germany after the end of the Franco-Prussian war

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ANZAC

Acronym for the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps

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Armistice

An end to the hostilities in which both parties agree to stop fighting

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Define the Battle of the Frontiers?

A series of battles lasting from August 14 to September 6, 1914 which pitted the Belgians and French against the Germans with a total of 2 million men

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Battle of Gumbinnen?

A Russian 1st army victory over the attacking 8th army which suffered 8,000 casualties

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Battle of Jutland

The largest clash of surface vessels in history, 250 warships during a 72 hour battle

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Battle of Tannenberg

Ludendorff and Hindenburg in command of the 8th army attacked Samsanov's 2nd army killing 50,000 and taking 100,000 prisoner

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Battle of Verdun

Major battleground when the German commander tried to bombard the exposed salient and capture the city. Joffre wanted to loose the city but Briand forced him to keep the city

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B.E.F.

British Expeditionary Force in France

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Brusilov Offensive

Russian offensive lead by Aleksxei Brusilov on June 4, 1916 inflicting such casualties that the Austrians were forced to stop their Italian offensive and forced Germany to transfer more divisions to the Eastern Front

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Casualties

Combined total of soldiers taken out of action in one of four ways; killed, wounded, taken prisoner, or missing in action

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Caucasian Front

The Turkish Russian front from the Black Sea to the Caspian

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Central Powers

Triple Alliance before 1914 and Quadruple Alliance after October 1915

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Conscription

The mandatory calling up of young men for military service

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Decrees on Land and Peace

Two decrees issued by Russia on November 8, 1917 ensuring that they would be unable to fight the Germans by giving all the land to the peasants and the intentions of the Bolsheviks to seek an armistice

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Defense in Depth

Defensive tactic used by the Germans in which successive lines of trenches slowed down and contained attackers

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Dominian

The term for autonomous polity within the British empire in which the country deffered to London on matters of foreign policy

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Easter 1916 Uprising

An Irish Republican to end British war in Ireland

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Entente

Triple Alliance before the war but grew to a large alliance

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Flanking Manuever

When an army attacked from the side avoiding heavy frontal trench defenses

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Gorlice Tarnow Offensive

A German and Austrian Offensive agaisnt Russia on May 2, 1915 starting the Russian Great Retreat

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Great Retreat

A series of large scale retreats by the Russian army during which they conducted scorched earth policies and attacked Jewish personages

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Italian Front

A front along the Austrian-Italian border in the Alps which made offensives difficult and largely inconclusive

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Hindenburg Line

A formidable defensive network of trenches utilized by the Germans after a surprise tactical withdrawal in February 1917

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Paul von Hindenburg

German general and hero of Tannenberg and savior of Germany, commander German forces in the east 1914 to 1916 and Chief of Staff August 1916 to October 1918

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David Lloyd, George

The British Prime Minister from 1916 and 1922, one of the Big Four and supported the League of Nation's idea of Wilson

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Erich Ludendorff

German general, Chief of Staff of the 8th army from 1914 to 191. First Quartermaster-General August 1916 to 1918

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Macedonian Front

AKA Salonika Front active from January 1916 to October 1918 which pitted Bulgarians, Austrians and Germans against Serbian, French, British, Russian and Greek troops

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Mobilization

The act of assembling troops and supplies and readying them for wa. Because it took time the mobilization of an opposing troop force the mobilization was seen as tantamount to an act of war

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Mutiny

When a group of soldiers decide to disobey a soldier they don't agree with

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Nicholas II

The Czar of Russia from 1894 to 1917, formed the Duma in 1905. Took direct command of the army in 1915, was killed while under house arrest in July 1918

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Paris Peace Conference

Peace conference at the end of the First World Wa. In session until mid 1920, most important decisions were made from January to July 1919

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Plan 17

The French war plan developed by General Joffre in 1911. Called for a series of offensives towards Alsace and Lorraine. Joffre launched five offensives in August 1914 costing 200,000 casualties

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Pogrom

An organized and often officially encouraged attack on a minority group especially against Jews in the Russian Empire and other countries

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Race to the Sea

The strategy by German Chief of the General Staff Erich von Falkenhayn in which the Germans tried to outflank the allies along the English Channel

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Realpolitik

Politics based on practical and material factors rather than on theoretical or ethical objectives

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Reserves

Soldiers who served for a number of years in the military but could be called upon at any time to serve in the army in case of war. Second, forces behind the regular units ready to be deployed to important sectors of the front

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Sapper Trenches

Trenches angled in a zig zag pattern dug under the cover of darkness close to the enemy's lines and used for massing troops in an attack

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Schlieffen Plan

The plan developed by General Alfred von Schlieffen and used by Moltke against France. Massive offensive against France designed to defeat France by the 42 day

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Stalemate

The situation in which neither side can make progress due to the barbed wire, machine guns, trenches and defensive technologies

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Total War

When a country's entire economy and society becomes completely focused on producing for the war

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Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

The naval policy by which German submarines torpedoed all shisp carrying supplies to Britian

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War of Attrition

The strategy of reducing the enemy's ability to fight by forcing him to expend ammunition, resources and taking of heavy casualties

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Western Front

The main front of the war focused on a narrow stretch of land between Flanders and northeastern France

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Zimmerman Telegram

Diplomatic dispatch from German Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Arthur Zimmerman to the Mexican Government in January 1917 asking for Mexican aid in an alliance with Germany