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How many peace treaties resulted from the Paris Peace Conferences?

Five

1

What was the first peace treaty of the war and who was it between?

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

2

When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed?

March 1918

3

What countries did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk force Russia to give up?

Poland, the Baltic Region, the Caucasus and an independent Ukrainian Republic and Finland

4

How much territory did Russia loose at Brest-Litovsk?

7550,000 square kilometers

5

How much of the Russian Empire's population was lost due to Brest-Litovsk?

25%

6

How much of the Russian iron and coal deposits were lost at Brest-Litovsk?

3/4 of the iron and coal deposits

7

How much of Russia's industry was lost at Brest-Litovsk?

28%

8

How much of Russia's agricultural output was lost?

37% of its agricultural output

9

What else did the German force on Russia in addition to resource losses?

Payments for damages caused to German properties, unpaid loans, nationalized businesses, extensive extraterritorial rights and duty free goods

10

What did Germany go in the Ukraine?

Back a puppet government that required massive deliveries of grain to Germany at below market prices

11

When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk rejected by Russia?

November 1918

12

The initial moves toward peace in October 1918 were between who?

Woodrow Wilson and Germany

13

What were the Fourteen Points?

End of secret alliances, freedom of the seas, reduction of trade barriers, disarmament, a settlement of colonial disputes in the colonies interests, autonomy for Austro-Hungarian national groups, the restoration of Balkan nations, protection for minorities in Turkey, free passage through the Dardanelles, independent Poland and the League of Nations

14

What did the European allies reject in the Fourteen Points?

Britain for the freedom of the seas so that they could continue to blockade Germany they also wanted reparations for damage to their civilian populations and property

15

When was the Treaty of Versailles?

June 28, 1919

16

When was the Treaty of Saint Germain and with whom?

Austria on September 10, 1919

17

When was the Treaty of Neuilly?

November 27, 1919 with Bulgaria

18

When was the Treaty of Trianon?

June 4, 1920 with Hungary

19

When was the Treaty of Sevres?

August 10, 1920

20

What British economist resigned in disgust to the Treaty of Versailles?

John Maynard Keynes

21

What did British economist John Maynard Keynes publish?

The Economic Consequences of the Peace

22

Who argued that Versailles was much less punitive then Bret-Litovsk?

David Stevenson

23

What powere was excluded from the negotiations at Versailles?

Russia

24

What side were the French, British, Japanese and Americans drawn into in the Russian Civil War?

The White opposition led by Admiral Kolchak

25

What was Britain's goal for the Treaty of Versailles?

To guard its overseas empire and revive a European balance of power

26

What was France's goal for the Treaty of Versailles?

They wanted to reduce German power in the present and future, also to build an international system that would prevent Germany from ever raging a war again

27

What was Wilson's goals at the Treaty of Versailles?

To create a new international order for a world of democracies, limited armaments and open markets

28

How many countries had representatives at Versailles?

37 countries

29

When was the opening of the Paris Peace Conference?

January 18, 1919

30

Who emerged as the locus of decision-making?

The Council of Four including Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy

31

How long did it take to form the creation of the League of Nation's constitutions?

Two months

32

What countries were excluded from the League of Nations?

Russian and the members of the Central Powers

33

Why did France become an unwilling partner in the League of Nations?

Because there was no military enforcement arm which was what they wanted

34

How was the League of Nations biased?

It was only made up of Entente members

35

What German city was to be turned over to the Polish and rendered a free city?

Danzig

36

What was the clause that forced Germany to accept responsibility for the start of the war?

Article 231

37

What was one of the domestic problems with Wilson's post war goals?

He lost control of the Senate in November 1918 and then Senator Cabot Lodge became chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee

38

What was the problems with Senator Lodge?

He was a strict isolationist and he didn't approve of the League of Nations

39

What was Wilson forced to do with the League of Nations as a result of Senator Lodge?

Include the Covenant of the League of Nations within the Treaty of Versailles which he thought would keep it safe from veto

40

Why did the US not sign the Treaty of Versailles?

The Congress and the public did not want the US to be involved in another European dispute and ethnic groups were lined up against the treaty

41

What were the ethnic groups that had problems with the Treaty of Versailles and why?

The Germans at the harsh terms, Irish because of no independence, Italians because Wilson opposed Italian claims to the Croat and Slovene region of Flume

42

What union did the Treaty of Versailles prevent?

Germany and Austria

43

Why did the League of Nations not work?

Lack of American unification and no military unification arm

44

What countries apposed Japan's proposal of a clause condemning racial discrimination in the League of Nations?

Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the US

45

Why did the United States not agree with the racial discrimination clause by Japan?

Because senators from the Pacific states wanted to keep discrimination against Japanese immigrants and senators from the South worried that the same clause might be applied against the African Americans

46

What countries got German and Turkish territories at the end of the war?

Britain, France, Belgium, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Japan

47

What happened with the Entente war debts?

Wilson rescheduled them for a later payment

48

What was the German Navy limited to by Versailles?

Six battleships

49

What was the German army limited to?

200,000 conscripts and 100,000 volunteers

50

When did the Rhineland seeded to Allied occupation?

Until 1930

51

When were the coal mines of the Saar region of Germany ceded to France?

Until 1935 when they voted to rejoin Germany

52

Who argued that Germany was not dismembered and remained basically intact?

Zara Steiner

53

When did Germany and Austria create a kingdom of Poland?

November 5, 1916

54

Who led a Polish legion in the Austrian Army?

Joseph Pilsudski who lead a legion of 25,000 men

55

What happened to prominent Czech leaders Tomas Masryk and Eduard Benes during the war?

They spent the years in exile lobbying the Allies for support for an independent Czechoslovakia

56

What convinced the allies to allow the formation of Czech legions from volunteers?

1.4 million Czechs and Slovaks fighting in the war

57

How many men served in Czech units on the Russian, French and Italian fronts?

90,000 men

58

When was Czech independence declared?

In Prague on October 28, 1918

59

What areas of Austria went to Czechoslovakia?

The Slovak, Ruthenian and Ukranian areas

60

What countries fought a bitter civil war over Galicia?

Poland and the Ukraine

61

What countries fought over the Ukraine?

Poland and Russia in 1920

62

How many troops did Britain have in the Middle East when the war ended?

Nearly 1 million

63

What country wound up determining the fate of the Ottoman Empire?

Britain

64

What areas of Turkey were given to Britain?

Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq

65

What territories were given to France from the Ottoman Empire?

Syria and Lebanon

66

Who ruled the Anatolian Peninsula immediately after the war?

Italy, Greece, France and an Armenian state

67

Who lead a Turkish resistance that drove out Italy, Greece and France during the Turkish War of Independence?

Mustafa Kemal

68

How many Greeks were forced to leave Turkey by the Treaty of Lausanne?

1 million troops

69

How many Turks left Greece due to the Treaty of Lausanne?

380,000 Turks

70

What country fell to a military dictatorship in 1928?

Yugoslavia

71

Who conducted a coup in Poland in 1926?

Pilsudski

72

What was the only state that democracy didn't fall to right-wing military rule in Europe?

Czechoslovakia

73

What did government spending as a percent of GDP change from 1914 to 1916 in Britain?

15 percent to 60 percent

74

What did US government spending change from in 1913 to 1919?

8 percent to 29 percent

75

Who was the biggest source of loans for the Entente?

The United States

76

What was the best way to raise money for the way?

By selling war bonds

77

In what country's did massive inflation occur after the war?

In Germany, Poland, Hungary, Austria and Russia

78

What was the hardest group hit by inflation?

Middle class

79

How much did the Entente borrow from the US?

9.6 Billion

80

How was the largest debtor b the end of 1919?

Britain

81

How much foreign assets did the US hold by 1919?

$11 Billion

82

What percentage of French wheat, oats and sugar beets were in the occupied territories?

20 percent of the wheat, 25 percent of the oats and 50 percent of sugar beets

83

The occupied areas of France produced what percentage of steel, coal and iron ore?

80 percent of steel, 55 percent of all coal, 90 percent of iron ore

84

What would British women give to civilian men who had not yet enlisted?

White feathers

85

What mental injury did soldiers often receive?

Shell shock

86

In what country's did female participation rise to 1/3 during the war?

In Germany and France

87

What percentage of female workers were in the Russian workforce from 1914 to 1917?

27 percent in 1914 to 43 percent in 1917

88

What countries considered conscripting women for non-combat roles by the end of the war?

Britain and Germany

89

What was the only country to create a women's combat battalion?

Provisional Government in Russia

90

How many men served in the Russian's all female battalion?

About 6,000

91

What countries had granted women the right to vote before World War One?

Finland, New Zealand, Australia and Norway

92

When did women get the right to vote in Russia?

In 1917 under the Provisional Government

93

When did women in Germany get the right to vote?

In 1919

94

In Britain when were women given the right to vote and what were their restrictions?

They had to be over 30 and it was granted in 1918

95

When were women given the right to vote in France?

After World War Two

96

What type of civilians were interned during the war?

Enemy aliens

97

Who ddi the Germans deport during the war?

French and Belgian citiizens

98

How many Jews were driven out of their homes in Russia?

Half a million

99

What was the greatest atrocity of the war?

The Armenian genocide by the Turks

100

How many people died as a result of the Spanish flu?

50 million globally