Flashcards in Section Three Deck (101):
How many peace treaties resulted from the Paris Peace Conferences?
What was the first peace treaty of the war and who was it between?
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk signed?
What countries did the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk force Russia to give up?
Poland, the Baltic Region, the Caucasus and an independent Ukrainian Republic and Finland
How much territory did Russia loose at Brest-Litovsk?
7550,000 square kilometers
How much of the Russian Empire's population was lost due to Brest-Litovsk?
How much of the Russian iron and coal deposits were lost at Brest-Litovsk?
3/4 of the iron and coal deposits
How much of Russia's industry was lost at Brest-Litovsk?
How much of Russia's agricultural output was lost?
37% of its agricultural output
What else did the German force on Russia in addition to resource losses?
Payments for damages caused to German properties, unpaid loans, nationalized businesses, extensive extraterritorial rights and duty free goods
What did Germany go in the Ukraine?
Back a puppet government that required massive deliveries of grain to Germany at below market prices
When was the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk rejected by Russia?
The initial moves toward peace in October 1918 were between who?
Woodrow Wilson and Germany
What were the Fourteen Points?
End of secret alliances, freedom of the seas, reduction of trade barriers, disarmament, a settlement of colonial disputes in the colonies interests, autonomy for Austro-Hungarian national groups, the restoration of Balkan nations, protection for minorities in Turkey, free passage through the Dardanelles, independent Poland and the League of Nations
What did the European allies reject in the Fourteen Points?
Britain for the freedom of the seas so that they could continue to blockade Germany they also wanted reparations for damage to their civilian populations and property
When was the Treaty of Versailles?
June 28, 1919
When was the Treaty of Saint Germain and with whom?
Austria on September 10, 1919
When was the Treaty of Neuilly?
November 27, 1919 with Bulgaria
When was the Treaty of Trianon?
June 4, 1920 with Hungary
When was the Treaty of Sevres?
August 10, 1920
What British economist resigned in disgust to the Treaty of Versailles?
John Maynard Keynes
What did British economist John Maynard Keynes publish?
The Economic Consequences of the Peace
Who argued that Versailles was much less punitive then Bret-Litovsk?
What powere was excluded from the negotiations at Versailles?
What side were the French, British, Japanese and Americans drawn into in the Russian Civil War?
The White opposition led by Admiral Kolchak
What was Britain's goal for the Treaty of Versailles?
To guard its overseas empire and revive a European balance of power
What was France's goal for the Treaty of Versailles?
They wanted to reduce German power in the present and future, also to build an international system that would prevent Germany from ever raging a war again
What was Wilson's goals at the Treaty of Versailles?
To create a new international order for a world of democracies, limited armaments and open markets
How many countries had representatives at Versailles?
When was the opening of the Paris Peace Conference?
January 18, 1919
Who emerged as the locus of decision-making?
The Council of Four including Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy
How long did it take to form the creation of the League of Nation's constitutions?
What countries were excluded from the League of Nations?
Russian and the members of the Central Powers
Why did France become an unwilling partner in the League of Nations?
Because there was no military enforcement arm which was what they wanted
How was the League of Nations biased?
It was only made up of Entente members
What German city was to be turned over to the Polish and rendered a free city?
What was the clause that forced Germany to accept responsibility for the start of the war?
What was one of the domestic problems with Wilson's post war goals?
He lost control of the Senate in November 1918 and then Senator Cabot Lodge became chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
What was the problems with Senator Lodge?
He was a strict isolationist and he didn't approve of the League of Nations
What was Wilson forced to do with the League of Nations as a result of Senator Lodge?
Include the Covenant of the League of Nations within the Treaty of Versailles which he thought would keep it safe from veto
Why did the US not sign the Treaty of Versailles?
The Congress and the public did not want the US to be involved in another European dispute and ethnic groups were lined up against the treaty
What were the ethnic groups that had problems with the Treaty of Versailles and why?
The Germans at the harsh terms, Irish because of no independence, Italians because Wilson opposed Italian claims to the Croat and Slovene region of Flume
What union did the Treaty of Versailles prevent?
Germany and Austria
Why did the League of Nations not work?
Lack of American unification and no military unification arm
What countries apposed Japan's proposal of a clause condemning racial discrimination in the League of Nations?
Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the US
Why did the United States not agree with the racial discrimination clause by Japan?
Because senators from the Pacific states wanted to keep discrimination against Japanese immigrants and senators from the South worried that the same clause might be applied against the African Americans
What countries got German and Turkish territories at the end of the war?
Britain, France, Belgium, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Japan
What happened with the Entente war debts?
Wilson rescheduled them for a later payment
What was the German Navy limited to by Versailles?
What was the German army limited to?
200,000 conscripts and 100,000 volunteers
When did the Rhineland seeded to Allied occupation?
When were the coal mines of the Saar region of Germany ceded to France?
Until 1935 when they voted to rejoin Germany
Who argued that Germany was not dismembered and remained basically intact?
When did Germany and Austria create a kingdom of Poland?
November 5, 1916
Who led a Polish legion in the Austrian Army?
Joseph Pilsudski who lead a legion of 25,000 men
What happened to prominent Czech leaders Tomas Masryk and Eduard Benes during the war?
They spent the years in exile lobbying the Allies for support for an independent Czechoslovakia
What convinced the allies to allow the formation of Czech legions from volunteers?
1.4 million Czechs and Slovaks fighting in the war
How many men served in Czech units on the Russian, French and Italian fronts?
When was Czech independence declared?
In Prague on October 28, 1918
What areas of Austria went to Czechoslovakia?
The Slovak, Ruthenian and Ukranian areas
What countries fought a bitter civil war over Galicia?
Poland and the Ukraine
What countries fought over the Ukraine?
Poland and Russia in 1920
How many troops did Britain have in the Middle East when the war ended?
Nearly 1 million
What country wound up determining the fate of the Ottoman Empire?
What areas of Turkey were given to Britain?
Palestine, Transjordan and Iraq
What territories were given to France from the Ottoman Empire?
Syria and Lebanon
Who ruled the Anatolian Peninsula immediately after the war?
Italy, Greece, France and an Armenian state
Who lead a Turkish resistance that drove out Italy, Greece and France during the Turkish War of Independence?
How many Greeks were forced to leave Turkey by the Treaty of Lausanne?
1 million troops
How many Turks left Greece due to the Treaty of Lausanne?
What country fell to a military dictatorship in 1928?
Who conducted a coup in Poland in 1926?
What was the only state that democracy didn't fall to right-wing military rule in Europe?
What did government spending as a percent of GDP change from 1914 to 1916 in Britain?
15 percent to 60 percent
What did US government spending change from in 1913 to 1919?
8 percent to 29 percent
Who was the biggest source of loans for the Entente?
The United States
What was the best way to raise money for the way?
By selling war bonds
In what country's did massive inflation occur after the war?
In Germany, Poland, Hungary, Austria and Russia
What was the hardest group hit by inflation?
How much did the Entente borrow from the US?
How was the largest debtor b the end of 1919?
How much foreign assets did the US hold by 1919?
What percentage of French wheat, oats and sugar beets were in the occupied territories?
20 percent of the wheat, 25 percent of the oats and 50 percent of sugar beets
The occupied areas of France produced what percentage of steel, coal and iron ore?
80 percent of steel, 55 percent of all coal, 90 percent of iron ore
What would British women give to civilian men who had not yet enlisted?
What mental injury did soldiers often receive?
In what country's did female participation rise to 1/3 during the war?
In Germany and France
What percentage of female workers were in the Russian workforce from 1914 to 1917?
27 percent in 1914 to 43 percent in 1917
What countries considered conscripting women for non-combat roles by the end of the war?
Britain and Germany
What was the only country to create a women's combat battalion?
Provisional Government in Russia
How many men served in the Russian's all female battalion?
What countries had granted women the right to vote before World War One?
Finland, New Zealand, Australia and Norway
When did women get the right to vote in Russia?
In 1917 under the Provisional Government
When did women in Germany get the right to vote?
In Britain when were women given the right to vote and what were their restrictions?
They had to be over 30 and it was granted in 1918
When were women given the right to vote in France?
After World War Two
What type of civilians were interned during the war?
Who ddi the Germans deport during the war?
French and Belgian citiizens
How many Jews were driven out of their homes in Russia?
Half a million
What was the greatest atrocity of the war?
The Armenian genocide by the Turks