Session 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 1 Deck (10):
1

When should drugs be reported on a yellow card?

All reactions to black triangle drugs (new)
All peadiatric reactions
All serious complications (prolonging hospital stay) of established products

2

Define pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

Pharmacokinetics - movement of drug in/out of the body (what body does to drug)
Pharmacodynamics - mechanism of action (what drug does to body)

3

What are the 4 steps in the pharmacokinetic process?

Absorption - bioavailability, first pass metabolism
Distribution - protein binding, volume of distribution
Metabolism
Elimination

4

What is the bioavailability (F) of a drug and how is it calclated?

The fraction of a drug that finds its way into the circulation. Two graphs of plasma concentration against time are plotted for oral and IV (100%) routes. F=AUC oral/ AUC IV

5

What factors affect bioavailability?

Absorption - age, vomiting, malabsorption
First pass metabolism

6

What is the first pass metabolism?

Any metabolism occuring before the drug enters the systemic circulation. Occurs in the gut lumen, gut wall and liver

7

What factors can affect drug protein binding?

Hypoalbuminaemia, pregnancy, renal failure, displacement by other drugs

8

When is a change is the protein binding of a drug significant?

If the drug has high protein binding, low Vd and narrow therapeutic window

9

What factors can influence the activity of cytochrome P450 enzymes (phase 1 metabolism)?

Enzyme inducing/inhibiting drugs (alter rate of metabolism of other drugs), age, liver disease, cigarettes, alcohol

10

Why would a drug need to be monitored?

Zero order kinetics, long half life, narrow therapeutic window, at increased risk of drug-drug interactions