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Flashcards in Session 5 Deck (10):
1

Broadly what in the main mechanism of action for antivirals?

Virostatic (virucidal only used topically occasionaly)

2

What are the different methods antivirals can inhibit viral replication?

Fusion/entry inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inibitors, integrase inhibitors, protease inhibitors

3

How do immunomodulator antivirals work?

Replace deficient host immunity (immunoglobulins)
Enhance host immunity (e.g. interferons, imiquimod)

4

What is the first line treatment for chronic hepatitis B?

48 week course of peginterferon alfa-2a
2nd line - Entecavir

5

What is the drug treatment for hepatitis C?

Peginterferon and ribavirin

6

Why are 3 different drugs often used for antiretroviral therapy?

They each affect a different step of the viral replication cycle making treatment more successful and reduces chance of resistance (often just one pill but 3 drugs inside)

7

Give examples of uses for prophylaxis of bacterial infections

Peri operative - prevention of surgical site infections
Short term - meningitis contacts
Long term - asplenia, immunodeficiency

8

What are the different types of antibiotic adverse effects?

Pharmacological - toxicities, drug interactions
Allergic reactions
Impact on normal flora e.g. Clostridium difficile

9

What antibiotics need to be monitored?

Gentamicin (aminoglycoside)
Vancomycin (glycopeptide)

10

What are the general principles to prevent antibiotic resistance?

Prevent bacterial exposure to antibiotics - minimise risk of infection and control antibiotic prescribing
Preventing the spread of resistant bacteria - hand hygeine, isolation, decolonisation of patients