Session 2 - Acute inflammation clinical questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Session 2 - Acute inflammation clinical questions Deck (12):
1

What symptoms will you see in an inflamed appendix?

Rubor and tubor

2

Why does an inflamed appendices appear plumper than usual?

Fluid accumulation due acute inflammatory exudate

3

How does an appendix perforate?

Neutrophils release ROS which damage cell membrane.Cells release enzymes, which further breakdown and cause perforation.

4

What complication would follow perforation of the appendix?

Peritonitis, inflammation of the peritoneum

5

Why does the mucosae of an inflamed appendix swell?

Neutrophils leak into tissue via infiltration. Fluid leaks in via exudation.

6

What can cause acute appendicitis?

Appendix occlusion via faecaliffs or tumours, causing proliferation of bacterium.

7

What can swelling in the brain cause?

Increase in intracranial pressure, causing ischaemia and thrombosis

8

What organism may cause meningitis in the following age groups?
- Neonates and children
- Young adults
- Older age groups

- Neonates and children
Menigalcoccal infection
- Young adults
Neisseria meningitis
- Older age groups
Streptoccocus pneumonia

9

What are the long term complications of meningitis?

Hydrocephalis and neurological complications

10

What is chronic granulomatous disease?

A hereditary x-linked recessive disease in which phagocyte NADPH oxidase is defective in phagocytes, which means reactive oxidating species cannot be produced, so bacteria cannot be destroyed. This means lower immune resistance, resulting in pneumonia, abcesses and suppurative arthiritis.

11

Describe process of penumonia



- Bacteria reach lungs
- Invade spaces between cells and alveoli
- Neutrophils and macrophages attempt to inactivate bacteria
- Neutrophils also release cytokines
- Acute inflammation occurs and neutrophils, bacteria and exudate oedema fill alveoli

12

How does inflammation stop?

Short half life of inflammatory mediators
Production and release of Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta from macrophages
Production and release of Interleukin 10
Apoptosis of pro-inflammatory cells