Flashcards in Shock & Sepsis Deck (19)
When circulatory system is unable to supply adequate amounts of oxygen to the tissues.
What can result without immediate treatment of shock?
Organ system failure and death.
Define hypovolemic shock.
Rapid intravascular fluid loss resulting in inadequate circulating volume.
Examples: hemorrhage, severe GI or renal fluid loss (vomiting/diarrhea), burns.
Define cardiogenic shock.
Inadequate pumping ability of the heart muscle .
Examples: acute MI, severe heart failure, stroke.
Define obstructive shock.
Mechanical barrier to ventricular filling or emptying resulting in decreased cardiac output.
Examples: cardiac tamponade (chest trauma- pressure on the heart), pneumothorax, severe valvular disease, arterial stenosis.
Define distributive shock.
Vasodilation and poor vascular tone, results in venous pooling, decreased venous return to the heart and decreased intravascular volume.
Examples: anaphylaxis, sepsis, neurogenic or spinal shock
Define anaphylactic shock.
Life-threatening systemic hypersensitivity reaction.
What happens to the body during an allergic reaction?
Release of histamine-
< widespread vasodilation
> increased capillary permeability
< smooth muscle contraction
What are clinical manifestations for anaphylactic shock?
Respiratory distress: tachypnea, wheezing, stridor, cyanosis,hypoxia, airway edema, agitation and confusion.
Hypovolemia: tachycardia, hypotension, weak pulses, pale cap; and clammy skin.
Systemic: angioedema and urticaria.
What nursing management is needed for anaphylactic shock?
Removing trigger, if possible
Maintain airway (O2, incubation)
Prevent shock (IV fluids, CPR)
< leukotriene inhibitors
What do antihistamines do?
Inhibit vasodilation and vascular permeability.
What does epinephrine do?
Vasoconstriction and relaxes smooth muscle
What does a bronchodilator do?
Relaxes smooth muscle
What does a leukotriene inhibitor do?
Deceased smooth muscle contraction
What do steroids do?
Explain the process of septic shock.
Body unable to control infection
Vasodilation and increased capillary permeability
Cytokines damage blood vessels
Coagulation system is activated
Clotting factors are used up resulting in hemorrhaging
Multiple organ dysfunction
List the clinical manifestations of the early phase of septic shock.
Decreased urine output
List clinical manifestations of the late phase of septic shock.
Peripheral vascular collapse
Multiple organ failure