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Flashcards in Sociology - Chapter 3 Deck (37)
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What does culture do?

Shapes what we do and helps form our personalities

1

Culture (2)

No way of life is "natural" to humanity, even though most people around the world view their behavior as that way

The values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form a person's way of life

2

Difference between culture, nation, and society? (3)

Culture- shared way of life

Nation- political entity (a territory with designated borders. Ex: U.S., Canada)

Society- people who interact in a define territory and share a culture

3

How many languages are there globally?

7,000 languages, yet they are declining

4

Unlike other creatures, humans try to give the world

Meaning

5

Example of someone using a symbol in an unconventional way?

Someone burning the U.S. Flag during a political demonstration

6

What are two possible meanings of a fur coat? (2)

A prized symbol of success or the inhumane treatment of animals

7

Every society transmits culture through speech, a process sociologists call?

The "oral cultural tradition"

8

Who is kanzi? What makes kanzi special? (2)

A 23 year old chimp

He could learn language by listening and observing

9

Outline the 10 key values of the U.S. as identified by Robin Williams (10)

1. Equal opportunity
2. Achievement and success
3. Material comfort
4. Activity and work
5. Practicality and efficiency
6. Progress
7. Science
8. Democracy and free enterprise
9. Freedom
10. Racism and group superiority

10

Most important... In a culture apply everywhere and at all times

Norms

11

What are 3 ways that today's world is a global culture? (3)

1. The global economy: the flow of goods
2. Global communications: flow of information
3. Global migration: the flow of people

12

Sociologists claim that the large number of cultural universals reflects...

The fact that all humans are members of a single biological species

13

Nonmaterial culture

The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society

14

Material culture

The tangible things created by members of a society

15

Culture shock

Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life

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Symbols

Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture

17

Language

A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another

18

Cultural transmission

The process by which one generation passes culture to the next generation

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Values

Culturally defined standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty

20

Norms

Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior or its members

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Mores

Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance

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Folkways

Norms for routine or casual interaction

23

Social control

Attempts by society to regulate people's thought and behavior

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Technology

Knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings

25

High culture

Cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite

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Popular culture

Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population

27

Subculture

Cultural patterns that are set apart some segment of a society's population

28

Eurocentrism

The dominance of European (especially english) cultural patterns

29

Afrocentrism

The dominance of African cultural patterns

30

Cultural integration

The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system

31

Counterculture

Cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society

32

Cultural lag

Fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting cultural system

33

Ethnocentrism

The practice of judging another culture by the standards of ones own culture

34

Cultural relativism

The practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards

35

Cultural universals

Traits that are part of every known culture

36

Sociobiology

A theoretical paradigm that explores ways in which biology affects how we create culture