Flashcards in SOL Review Deck (346):
What was the Renaissance?
Rebirth of classical knowledge
Birth of the modern world
Where did the Renaissance spread?
From the Italian city states to northern Europe
Contributions of the Renaissance? (3)
Famous painters in the Renaissance (2)
Leonardo da Vinci
Accomplishments in literature (3)
Accomplishments in literature (person)
Accomplishments in intellectual ideas
Humanism (group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually, and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence)
Accomplishments in intellectual ideas (person)
Erasmus -- The Praise of the Folly
Five world religions in 1500 A.D.
Location of Judaism (2)
Location of Christianity (2)
Location of Islam (3)
Location of Hinduism (2)
Location of Buddhism (3)
What parts of the world did the trade patterns of 1500 A.D. link? (4)
Traditional trade patterns that linked Europe with Asia and Africa (6)
Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean
Trans Saharan routes across North Africa
Northern European links with the Black Sea
Western European sea and river trade
South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia
Why were the regional trading patterns important?
Exchange of products and ideas
Advancements exchanged along trade routes from China (4)
Advancements exchanged along trade routes from India and the Middle East (2)
Scientific transfer (3)
Did the Roman Catholic Church have competition prior to 1500 A.D.?
The resistance of the church to change led to what?
What resulted from the Protestant Reformation?
The birth of new politcal and economic systems
The lending of money with an interest charge for its use
Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome (4)
1. Merchant wealth challenged the Church's view of usury
2. German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church
3. The Church's great politcal power and wealth caused conflict
4. Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict
What were the views of Martin Luther (3)
1. Salvation by faith alone
2. Bible as the ultimate authority
3. All humans equal before God
Martin Luther's actions (2)
1. 95 Theses (document challenging the authority of the Church)
2. Birth of the Protestant Church (Lutherism)
What were the view of John Calvin (3)
1. Predestination (all events have been willed by God)
2. Faith revealed by living a righteous life
3. Work ethic
John Calvin's actions
Expansion of the Protestant Movement
View of King Henry III
Dismissed the authority of the Pope
Actions of King Henry III (4)
2. Broke with Rome
3. Headed the national church in England
4. Devoted lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England
Actions of Queen Elizabeth I (4)
1. Anglican church
2. Tolerance for dissenters
3. Expansion and colonialism
4. Victory over the Spanish Armada
When did Queen Elizabeth I emerge victorious over the Spanish aramda?
What religion did princes in Northern Germany covernt to?
What was the affect of the princes of Northern Germany conversion to Protestantism?
Ended authority of the pope
Who continued to support the Roman Catholic Church? (2)
Authority of the Roman Catholic Church
What did the conflict between Protestants and Catholics result in?
Thirty Years War
French Protestants inspired by Calvinism
Edict of Nantes
Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship
Cardinal Richelieu (3)
1. Transformed France into a strong, centralized state
2. Changed the focus of the Thirty Years' War from a religiou to a politcal conflict
3. Wanted the Hapsburgs out and the French in
Dissenters prior to Luther (2)
Church's response to the Protestant reformation
Council of Trent
Reaffirmed most Church doctrine and practice
The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
Founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world
What as the inquisition (aimed to combat heresy) used for?
Reinforced Catholic doctrine
Changing cultural values, traditions, and philosphies (3)
1. Growth of secularism (seperation of church and state)
2. Growth of individualism
3. Eventual growth of religious tolerance
What was the role of the printing press in the spread of new ideas? (3)
1. Growth of literacy stimulated by the Gutenberg printing press
2. Bible was printed in English, French, and German
3. Spread the ideas of the reformation
What id the expanding economies of Europeans states stimulate?
Increased trade with markets in Asia
After the loss of Constantinople in 1453, what did Europeans seek?
New maritime routes for trade
Why were Europeans interesting in discovering new lands and markets?
1. Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources
2. Support the diffusion of Christianity
3. Competition between empires
4. Innovation in navigational arts (European and Islamic Origin)
Portugese important explorers (2)
Prince Henry the Navigator
Vasco de Gama
Prince Henry the Navigator acheivements (2)
1. Led the way for explorers
2. Created a navigation school
Vasco de Gama acheivements
Explored around Africa
Spanish important explorers (4)
Christopher Columbus acheivemen
Discovered the West Indies
Hernando Cortez acheivemen
Conquered the Aztecs
Franciso Pizarro acheivemen
Conquered the Incans
Ferdinand Magellan acheivemen
First to lead a voyage that sailed across the world
English famous explorer
Francis Drake achievement
First Englishman to sail around the world
French famous explorer
Jacques Cartier achievement
Means of diffusion of Christianity (3)
1. Migration of colonists to new lands
2. Influence of Catholics and Protestants
3. Convesion of indigenous peoples
What was the affect of European migration and settlement on the Americas (4)
1. Demise of Aztec and Incan empires
2. Legacy of a ridgid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America
3. Forced migration of some Africans into slavery
4. Colonies' imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent country
What was the affect of European migration and settlement in Africa (2)
1. European trading posts along the coast
2. Trade in slaves, gold, and other products
What was the affect of European migration and settlement in Asia? (2)
1. Colonized by small groups of merchants
2. Influence of trading companies
What agricultural products changed European lifestyles? (3)
Which animals changed the lifesytle of American Indians? (2)
What European disease killed many native Americans?
What was the impact of the Columbian Exchange between European and indigenous cultures? (2)
1. Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African slaves
2. European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment
What was slavery based on?
What areas did the Triangular Trade link? (3)
What goods were traded along the Triangular Trade? (3)
What was the impac tof precious metal exports for the Americas? (3)
1. Gold and silver exported to Europe and Asia
2. Labor conscription
3. Impact on Spain and international trade
What empire emerged as a politcal and economic power after the conquest of Constantinople?
Original location of Ottoman Empire
Expansion and extent of the Ottoman Empire (4)
What helped unify the Ottoman Empire
Islamic religion -- they accepted other religions though
What the did Ottoman Empire trade? (2)
Which group did the Mughals descend from?
Who did the Mughal Empire trade with?
Location of the Mughal Empire
Contributions of the Mughal rulers (4)
1. Spread Islam into India
2. Art and architecture (Taj Mahal)
3. Arrival of European trading outposts
4. Influence of Indian textiles on British textiles
Who competed for trade in the Indian Ocean by established Coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent? (3)
What did Southern India trade? (3)
How did China attempt to limit the influence of European merchants? (2)
1. Creation of forgein enclaves to control trade
2. Trading restrictions with European nations
There was an increase in European demand for what nation's goods?
Describe the power of the Japanese emperor
Who ruled Japan
Military leader (shogun)
What was Japan's forgein policy
African exports (2)
Africans imported manufactored goods from which areas (2)
Europe, Asia, and the Americas
What new food products did Africans import (2)
An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self sufficient; based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of their mother country
The commerical revolution saw the emergence of what?
A new economic system with new money and banking systems
What were colonial economies limited by?
The economic needs of their mother country
What did the Scientific Revolution change?
The way people viewed the world and their place in it
Heliocentric theory (Earth revolves around sun)
Used a telescope to support heliocentric theory
Discovered Laws of Gravity
Discovered the circulation of the blood
What did the scientific revolution emphasize?
Reason and systematic observation of nature
The scientific revolution led to the formulation of...
Age of Absolutism
Series of European monarchs who increased the power of their governments
Characteristics of absolute monarchies (2)
1. Centralization of pwer
2. Rule by divine right
Who were abolute monarchs? (2)
Louis XIV -- France
Peter the Great -- Russia
Built Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power
Peter the Great
Westernization of Russia
Government derives power from the consent of the governed
Foundations of English freedoms (3)
Which war prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen?
English Civil War
Which revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen?
Development of the rights of Englishmen
Oliver Cromwell and the execution of...
English Bill of RIghts of 1689
Increase of parliamentary power and decrease of royal power
What did Enlightenment thinkers believe?
Human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and resason to issues of law and government
What did Enlightenment ideas influence? (2)
1. Leaders of th American Revolution
2. Declaration of Independence
What was the affect of the Enlightment on religion?
Increased religious tolerance
What did the Enlightenment fuel?
Democratic revolutions around the world
Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan
Humans exist in a primitive "state of nature" and consent to government for self protection
John Locke's Two Treatises on Government
Natural rights to life, liberty, and property
Montesquieu's The Spirit of Laws
Seperation of powers
Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract
Government is a contract between rulers and the peoplle
Seperation of church and state
Where did Enlightenment fueled rebellions ocurr? (2)
Which American documents incorportate Englightenment ideas? (3)
Declaration of Independence
Bill of Rights
Causes of the French Revolution? (2)
1. Influence of Englightenment ideas
2. Influence of American Revolution
Events of the French Revolution? (2)
Storming of the Bastille
Reign of Terror
Outcomes of the French Revolution (2)
1. End of absolution monarchy of Louis XVI
2. Rise of Napoleon
Age of Reason (Enlightement) witnessed ...
Inventions that stimulated trade and transportation
Johan Sebastian Bach
Migeul de Cervantes
New paintings depicted (4)
New technologies (3)
1. Better roads
2. Farm tools ++
3. Ship design ++
What were Latin American revolutions influenced by?
What was the effect of Spanish conquests in Latin america? (2)
Decline of native populations
Introduction of slaves from Africa
Given government authority by the crown -- later know as viceroys
What did colonial governments mirror?
What religion had a strong influnces on the development of Latin American colonies?
What was a major element of the Latin American colonies?
Mining of precious metals for export
What Latin American major cities were established as outposts of colonial authority? (5)
What king of class structure did Latin American colonies have?
Ridgid class structure
What were the 3 class groups in Latin American colonies?
Viceroy -- colonial officers
What happened in the Haitian revolution? (3)
Who started the Mexican independence movement?
Father Miguel Hidalgo
Which colonies gained independence? (3)
Which Latin American countries established indpendent nations? (5)
Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?
Former slave who led the Haitian rebellion against the French
Which armies did Toussaint L'Ouverture defeat? (3)
Who was Simon Bolivar
Native resident who led revolutionary efforts in Venezuela
Alterted European powers that American continents should not be considered for any future colonization
Impact of the Monroe Doctrine in Latin America
Latine American nations were acknowledged to be independent
What was the impact of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna?
Changes in politcal boundries in Europe
What did Napoleon attempt to do (unsuccessfully)
Unify Europe under French domination
Congress of Vienna
Attempted to restore Europe as it had been before the French Revolution and Napoleonic conquests
Napoleonic code (3)
1. Forbade privileges based on birth
2. Allowed freedom of religion
3. Government jobs should go to the most qualified
What was the legacy of Napoleon
Awakend feelings of national pride (growth of nationalism)
Legacy of the Congress of Vienna led to which doctrine?
Balance of power
How did Congress of Vienna affect monarchies?
What political philosphies did the Congress of Vienna lead to? (2)
What stimulated the growth of nationalism? (3)
What was a negative effect of the Congress of Vienna?
Widespread discontent in Europe (especially in Italy and Germany)
In contrast to continental Europe. how did Great Britian expand politcal rights? (2)
Who unified northern Italy?
Who joined southern Italy to northern Italy?
Which states for the last to join Italy?
Papal states (including Rome)
Otto von Bismarck
Led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings
Justifies all means to achieve and hold politcal power
What war led to the creatio nof the German state?
Where did the Industrial Revolution originate?
Why did the Industrial Revolution originate in England? (2)
1. Natural resources like coal, iron ore
2. Steam engine
Where did the Industrial Revolution spread to? (2)
What were important industries in the Industrial Revolution? (3)
What movement encourgaged the Industrial Revolution?
British Enclosure Movement
What system rose in the Industrial Revolution?
What indutry declines in the Industrial Revolution?
Who invented the spinning jenny?
Steam engine (perosn)
Cotton gin (person)
Process for making steel (person)
Developed smallpox vaccination
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on population
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on standards of living
Standards of living increased for many though not all
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on transportation
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on environment
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on education
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on working class
Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions
Impact of the Industrial Revolution on middle class
Growth of middle class
What fueld the Industrial Revolution? (2)
Which person is associated with captialism
Adam Smith -- Wealth of Nations
How did captialism impact the standards of living
Impoved standards of living
How did capitalism impact middle class
Growth of middle class
What were dissatisfactions with captialism? (2)
1. Poor working condition
2. Unequal distribution of wealth in society
Where were theories opposed to captialism? (2)
Who is assocaited with socialism and communism?
Karl Marx -- Communist Manifesto and Das Capital
What were socialism and communism a response to?
Injustices of captialism
What did socialism and communism emphasize?
Redistribution of wealth
What were agricultural economies based on
Nature of work in the factory system (2)
1. Harsh working conditions
2. Men competing with women and children for wages
What invention increased demand for slave labor?
Which countries outlawed the slave trade and then slavery? (2)
Who entered the workplace as cheap labor (2)
Women and children
How did the public react to child labor
Reform to end it
How did the Industrial Revolution affect education?
Expansion of education
How did the Industrial Revolution affect women?
Increased demands for suffrage
Why did workers go on strikesd? (2)
Improve working conditions
What did labor united lobby for? (2)
1. Worker rights
2. Collective bargaining between labor and management
European nations competed to control which continents to secure their economic and politcal success? (2)
What forms did resistancfe to imperialism take? (2)
What motivated European nations to compete for colonial possession?
How did European imperialism affect colonial industries?
Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries
Forms of imperialism (3)
2. Protectorates (relationship of protection and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent country or region)
3. Spheres of influence (claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory)
Imperialism in Africa and Asia (7)
1. European domination
2. European conlicts carried to the colonies
3. Christian missionary efforts
4. Spheres of influence in China
5. Suez Canal
6. East India Company's domination of Indian states
7. American opening of Japan to trade
Responses of colonize peoples (2)
1. Armed conflicts (Boxer Rebellion)
2. Rise of nationalism (Indian nationalist party)
When was World War 1?
Causes of World War 1 (6)
3. Diplomatic failures
5. Competition over colonies
What what the catalyst for WW1?
Assassination of Austria's Archduke Ferdinand
Who entered in the middle of WW1?
Who left in the middle of WW1?
Who were the major leaders of WW1? (2)
Woodrow Wilson (US)
Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany)
Colonies participation in WW1 led to...?
Increased demands for independence
WW1 led to the end of which empires? (3)
Treaty of Versailles (5)
1. Forced Germany to accept guilt
2. Forced Germany to pay repartations
3. Took German territory
4. Limited the German military
5. League of Nations
The Tsarist Russia that entered WW1 was characterized by? (2)
Sharp class divisions
Inadequate adminstration in WW1 led to? (2)
Unsuccessful provisional government
Causes of 1917 revolutions (4)
1. Defeat in war with Japan in 1905
2. Landless peasantry
3. Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II
4. MIlitary defeats and high casualties in WW1
Bolshevik Revolution and civil war (2)
1. Proletariat rose up against the tzar and upper classes
2. Tzar Nicholas II and family were executed
Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy (2)
1. To hellp Russia's economy
2. Still come private owned businesses and farmers could keep some surplus
Who was Lenin's successor
What was the League of Nations?
International cooperative organization
Why was the League of Nations established?
Prevent future wars
Who was not a member of the League of Nations?
Why did the League of Nations fail?
Did not have power to enforce its decisions
(Mandate system) During WW1, who agreed to divide the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves? (2)
The division of the Ottoman Empires through the mandate systems planted the seed for ..
Future Middle East conflict
Caused of the Great Depression (5)
1. German reparations
2. High portective tariffs
3. Expansion of credit
4. Stock Market Crash
5. Dominance of the United States in the global economy
When did the Stock Market crash?
Impacts of the world depression (5)
1. High unemployment
2. Bank failures
3. Collapse of credit
4. Nazi Party's growing importance in Germany
5. Collapse of prices in world trade
Stalin's policies (4)
1. Five Year plans
2. Collectivization of farms (state run farms)
3. State industrialization
4. Secret police (KGB)
Killing of Stalin's enemies
Germany during the interwar years (7)
4. Extreme nationalism
5. National socialism (Nazism)
6. Germany occumation of nearby counties
7. Democratic government weakened
Italy during the interwar years (3)
1. Rise of fascism
2. Ambition to restore the glory of Rome
3. Invasion of Ethiopia
Japan leaders (2)
Japan during the interwar years (3)
Where did Japan invade (3)
Causes of WW2 (6)
1. Aggression by totalitarian powers
3. Failures of the Treaty of Versailles
4. Weakness of the League of Nations
6. Tendencies toward isolationism and pacifism in Europe and the United States
When was WW2?
Allied invasio of Europe
Where were atomic bombs dropped? (2)
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Allied commander in Europe
British prime minister
Nazi dictator of Germany
Emperor of Japan
The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, politcal, religious, or cultural group
Elements leading to the Holocaust (5)
3. Anti Semitism
4. Germany's defeat in WW1
5. Hitler's belief in a master race
Final solution (2)
Other examples of genocide (4)
Where was the Armenian genocide?
Who were the perpetrators in the Cambodian genocide?
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)
Protect the inherent dignity and the qual and inalienable rights of humans
Outcomes of WW2 (6)
1. European powers' loss of empires
2. War crimes trials
3. Establishment of UN
4. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
5. Marshall Plan
6. New alliances
Division of Europe
US gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism
Efforts for reconstruction of Germany (3)
1. Demogratic government installed in Qest Germany and West Berlin
2. Germany and Berlin divided among the four allied powers
3. Emergence of West Germany as economic power
Efforts for reconstruction of Japan (4)
1. US occupation of Japan
2. Democracy and economic development
3. Elimination of Japan's military; US guaranteed securtity for Japan
4. Emergence of Japan as a dominant economy
Following WW2, the US occupied Japan under whom?
International Cooperative Organizations (3)
Who adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?
Members of the UN
World War II conference of the US, Britain, and , which planned the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany.
What were the conflicting ideologies in the Cold War? (2)
Democracy vs dictatorship
Free enterprise system vs communism
Policy of Containment
Truman -- prevent the spread of communism abroad
Eastern Europe was made primarily of...?
Soviet satellite nations -- Stalins buffer nations
Dissuade an adversary from undertaking an action not yet started, or to prevent them from doing something that another state desires (nuclear warfare)
Collapse of communism in USSR and Eastern Europe (5)
1. Soviet economy collapses
2. Buffer countried wanted freedom
3. Tearing down of Berlin Wall
4. Break up of USSR
5. Expansion of NATO
Policy for preventing the expansion of communism
Where were there conflicts and revolutionary movements during the COld War?
How did the Chinese civil war end?
Divison of China into two nations
Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)
Nationalist China (Island of Taiwan)
Communist China (mainland China)
What war did communist China participate in?
Which country's imperialism affected Vietnam?
Who was the Vietnamese revolutionary leader?
Ho Chi Minh
What kind of nation was Vietnam?
What type of government does Vietnam have today?
1. Closer relationship between Indian and USSR
2. Developed nuclear program
Margaret Thatcher (4)
1. British Prime Minister
2. Free traade and less government regulation of business
3. Close relations with US
4. Asserted UK military power
1. Glasnost and perestroika
2. Fall of Berlin Wall
3. Oversaw peaceful transition to democracy
Policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions
Restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system
Deng Xiaoping (2)
1. Reformed communist economy to market economy leading to rapid economic growth
2. Communist control of government continued
Indian National Congress
Dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain
Who used to rule India?
Who helped lead the Indian independence movement?
What did Ghandi encourage? (2)
Who got Pakistan?
What is the worlds largest democratic nation?
Republic of India
Associate of Gandhi who supported western industrialization
First prime minister of India
Indian 1950 Constitution
South to prohibit caste discrimination
What did UN nations cuarantee colonial populations?
Right to self determination
Independence movement in Africa (4)
1. Self determination (UN charter)
2. Peaceful and violent revolutions
3. Pride in African cultures and heritage
4. Resentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation
Which nations lost colonies? (4)
War for independence from France
Violent struggle for independence from Britain
Leadership of Kenyatta
South Africa (2)
1. Struggle against the apartheid
2. Led by Nelson Mandela
Who established mandates in the Middle East?
League of Nations
What did mandates result in?
Conflicts created by religious differences
French mandates (2)
British mandates (2)
Palestine (part became independent as the state of Israel)
Who was the prime minister of Israel?
Golda Meir led Israel to victory in which war?
Yom Kippur War
Whose support did Golda Meir seek?
President of Egypt
Gamal Abdul Nasser
1. Nationalized the Suez Canal
2. Established relations with USSR
3. Built Aswan Dam
Dam situated across the Nile River
Present location of Judaism (2)
Present location of Christianity (3)
Present location of Islam (3)
Present location of Hinduism (1)
Present location of Buddhism (2)
What challenges do developed and developing nations face? (3)
Ethnic and religious conflict
Impact of new technologies
What new technologies have created opportunities and challenges? (3)
Ethnic and religious conflict (5)
Horn of Africa
Free market economies produce...? (2)
1. Rising standards of living
2. Expanding middle class
Recent examples the relationship between economic and politcal freedom (2)
European organization set up to promote tariff free trade among members
Elimination of trade barriers
North American free trade agreement
(Canada, US, Mexico)
Oversees trade among nations and makes sure it flows as smoothly and freely as possible
Use of violence and threats to intimidate and coerce for politcal reasons
Major cause of terrorism