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Flashcards in SOL Review Deck (346):
1

What was the Renaissance?

Rebirth of classical knowledge
Birth of the modern world

2

Where did the Renaissance spread?

From the Italian city states to northern Europe

3

Contributions of the Renaissance? (3)

Visual arts
Literature
Intellectual ideas

4

Famous painters in the Renaissance (2)

Michelangelo
Leonardo da Vinci

5

Accomplishments in literature (3)

Sonnets
Plays
Essays

6

Accomplishments in literature (person)

Shakespeare

7

Accomplishments in intellectual ideas

Humanism (group of philosophies and ethical perspectives which emphasize the value and agency of human beings, individually, and collectively, and generally prefers individual thought and evidence)

8

Accomplishments in intellectual ideas (person)

Erasmus -- The Praise of the Folly

9

Five world religions in 1500 A.D.

Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Hinduism
Buddhism

10

Location of Judaism (2)

Europe
Middle East

11

Location of Christianity (2)

Europe
Middle East

12

Location of Islam (3)

Asia
Africa
Southern Europe

13

Location of Hinduism (2)

India
Southeast Asia

14

Location of Buddhism (3)

East Asia
South Asia

15

What parts of the world did the trade patterns of 1500 A.D. link? (4)

Africa
Middle East
Asia
Europe

16

Traditional trade patterns that linked Europe with Asia and Africa (6)

Silk Roads
Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean
Trans Saharan routes across North Africa
Northern European links with the Black Sea
Western European sea and river trade
South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia

17

Why were the regional trading patterns important?

Exchange of products and ideas

18

Advancements exchanged along trade routes from China (4)

Paper
Compass
Silk
Porcelain

19

Advancements exchanged along trade routes from India and the Middle East (2)

Textiles
Numeral system

20

Scientific transfer (3)

Medicine
Astronomy
Mathematics

21

Did the Roman Catholic Church have competition prior to 1500 A.D.?

No

22

The resistance of the church to change led to what?

Protestant Reformation

23

What resulted from the Protestant Reformation?

The birth of new politcal and economic systems

24

Usury

The lending of money with an interest charge for its use

25

Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome (4)

1. Merchant wealth challenged the Church's view of usury

2. German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church

3. The Church's great politcal power and wealth caused conflict

4. Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict

26

What were the views of Martin Luther (3)

1. Salvation by faith alone
2. Bible as the ultimate authority
3. All humans equal before God

27

Martin Luther's actions (2)

1. 95 Theses (document challenging the authority of the Church)
2. Birth of the Protestant Church (Lutherism)

28

What were the view of John Calvin (3)

1. Predestination (all events have been willed by God)
2. Faith revealed by living a righteous life
3. Work ethic

29

John Calvin's actions

Expansion of the Protestant Movement

30

View of King Henry III

Dismissed the authority of the Pope

31

Actions of King Henry III (4)

1. Divorced
2. Broke with Rome
3. Headed the national church in England
4. Devoted lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England

32

Actions of Queen Elizabeth I (4)

1. Anglican church
2. Tolerance for dissenters
3. Expansion and colonialism
4. Victory over the Spanish Armada

33

When did Queen Elizabeth I emerge victorious over the Spanish aramda?

1588

34

What religion did princes in Northern Germany covernt to?

Protestantism

35

What was the affect of the princes of Northern Germany conversion to Protestantism?

Ended authority of the pope

36

Who continued to support the Roman Catholic Church? (2)

Hapsburg family
Authority of the Roman Catholic Church

37

What did the conflict between Protestants and Catholics result in?

Thirty Years War

38

Huguenots

French Protestants inspired by Calvinism

39

Edict of Nantes

Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship

40

Cardinal Richelieu (3)

1. Transformed France into a strong, centralized state
2. Changed the focus of the Thirty Years' War from a religiou to a politcal conflict
3. Wanted the Hapsburgs out and the French in

41

Dissenters prior to Luther (2)

Huss
Wycliffe

42

Counter Reformation

Church's response to the Protestant reformation

43

Council of Trent

Reaffirmed most Church doctrine and practice

44

The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

Founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world

45

What as the inquisition (aimed to combat heresy) used for?

Reinforced Catholic doctrine

46

Changing cultural values, traditions, and philosphies (3)

1. Growth of secularism (seperation of church and state)
2. Growth of individualism
3. Eventual growth of religious tolerance

47

What was the role of the printing press in the spread of new ideas? (3)

1. Growth of literacy stimulated by the Gutenberg printing press
2. Bible was printed in English, French, and German
3. Spread the ideas of the reformation

48

What id the expanding economies of Europeans states stimulate?

Increased trade with markets in Asia

49

After the loss of Constantinople in 1453, what did Europeans seek?

New maritime routes for trade

50

Why were Europeans interesting in discovering new lands and markets?

1. Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources
2. Support the diffusion of Christianity
3. Competition between empires
4. Innovation in navigational arts (European and Islamic Origin)

51

Portugese important explorers (2)

Prince Henry the Navigator
Vasco de Gama

52

Prince Henry the Navigator acheivements (2)

1. Led the way for explorers
2. Created a navigation school

53

Vasco de Gama acheivements

Explored around Africa

54

Spanish important explorers (4)

Christopher Columbus
Hernando Cortex
Franciso Pizarro
Ferdinand Magellan

55

Christopher Columbus acheivemen

Discovered the West Indies

56

Hernando Cortez acheivemen

Conquered the Aztecs

57

Franciso Pizarro acheivemen

Conquered the Incans

58

Ferdinand Magellan acheivemen

First to lead a voyage that sailed across the world

59

English famous explorer

Francis Drake

60

Francis Drake achievement

First Englishman to sail around the world

61

French famous explorer

Jacques Cartier

62

Jacques Cartier achievement

Canada

63

Means of diffusion of Christianity (3)

1. Migration of colonists to new lands
2. Influence of Catholics and Protestants
3. Convesion of indigenous peoples

64

What was the affect of European migration and settlement on the Americas (4)

1. Demise of Aztec and Incan empires
2. Legacy of a ridgid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America
3. Forced migration of some Africans into slavery
4. Colonies' imitation of the culture and social patterns of their parent country

65

What was the affect of European migration and settlement in Africa (2)

1. European trading posts along the coast
2. Trade in slaves, gold, and other products

66

What was the affect of European migration and settlement in Asia? (2)

1. Colonized by small groups of merchants
2. Influence of trading companies

67

What agricultural products changed European lifestyles? (3)

Corn
Potatoes
Tobacco

68

Which animals changed the lifesytle of American Indians? (2)

Horses
Cattle

69

What European disease killed many native Americans?

Smallpox

70

What was the impact of the Columbian Exchange between European and indigenous cultures? (2)

1. Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African slaves
2. European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment

71

What was slavery based on?

Race

72

What areas did the Triangular Trade link? (3)

Europe
Asia
Africa

73

What goods were traded along the Triangular Trade? (3)

Slaves
Sugar
Rum

74

What was the impac tof precious metal exports for the Americas? (3)

1. Gold and silver exported to Europe and Asia
2. Labor conscription
3. Impact on Spain and international trade

75

What empire emerged as a politcal and economic power after the conquest of Constantinople?

Ottoman Empire

76

Original location of Ottoman Empire

Asia Minor

77

Expansion and extent of the Ottoman Empire (4)

Southwest Asia
Southeastern Europe
Balkan Peninsula
North Africa

78

What helped unify the Ottoman Empire

Islamic religion -- they accepted other religions though

79

What the did Ottoman Empire trade? (2)

Coffee
Ceramics

80

Which group did the Mughals descend from?

Mongols

81

Who did the Mughal Empire trade with?

European nations

82

Location of the Mughal Empire

North India

83

Contributions of the Mughal rulers (4)

1. Spread Islam into India
2. Art and architecture (Taj Mahal)
3. Arrival of European trading outposts
4. Influence of Indian textiles on British textiles

84

Who competed for trade in the Indian Ocean by established Coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent? (3)

Portugal
England
Netherlands

85

What did Southern India trade? (3)

Silk
Spices
Gems

86

How did China attempt to limit the influence of European merchants? (2)

1. Creation of forgein enclaves to control trade
2. Trading restrictions with European nations

87

There was an increase in European demand for what nation's goods?

China

88

Describe the power of the Japanese emperor

Powerless

89

Who ruled Japan

Military leader (shogun)

90

What was Japan's forgein policy

Isolationism

91

African exports (2)

Slaves
Raw materials

92

Africans imported manufactored goods from which areas (2)

Europe, Asia, and the Americas

93

What new food products did Africans import (2)

Corn
Peanuts

94

Mercantilism

An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self sufficient; based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of their mother country

95

The commerical revolution saw the emergence of what?

A new economic system with new money and banking systems

96

What were colonial economies limited by?

The economic needs of their mother country

97

What did the Scientific Revolution change?

The way people viewed the world and their place in it

98

Nicolaus Copernicus

Heliocentric theory (Earth revolves around sun)

99

Johannes Kepler

Planetary motion

100

Galileo Galilei

Used a telescope to support heliocentric theory

101

Isaac Newton

Discovered Laws of Gravity

102

William Harvey

Discovered the circulation of the blood

103

What did the scientific revolution emphasize?

Reason and systematic observation of nature

104

The scientific revolution led to the formulation of...

Scientific method

105

Age of Absolutism

Series of European monarchs who increased the power of their governments

106

Characteristics of absolute monarchies (2)

1. Centralization of pwer
2. Rule by divine right

107

Who were abolute monarchs? (2)

Louis XIV -- France
Peter the Great -- Russia

108

Louis XIV

Built Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal power

109

Peter the Great

Westernization of Russia

110

Democracy

Government derives power from the consent of the governed

111

Foundations of English freedoms (3)

Jury trial
Magna Carta
Common law

112

Which war prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen?

English Civil War

113

Which revolution prompted further development of the rights of Englishmen?

Glorious Revolution

114

Development of the rights of Englishmen
Oliver Cromwell and the execution of...

Charles I

115

Glorious Revolution

Bloodless

116

English Bill of RIghts of 1689

Increase of parliamentary power and decrease of royal power

117

What did Enlightenment thinkers believe?

Human progress was possible through the application of scientific knowledge and resason to issues of law and government

118

What did Enlightenment ideas influence? (2)

1. Leaders of th American Revolution
2. Declaration of Independence

119

What was the affect of the Enlightment on religion?

Increased religious tolerance

120

What did the Enlightenment fuel?

Democratic revolutions around the world

121

Thomas Hobbes' Leviathan

Humans exist in a primitive "state of nature" and consent to government for self protection

122

John Locke's Two Treatises on Government

Natural rights to life, liberty, and property

123

Montesquieu's The Spirit of Laws

Seperation of powers

124

Jean-Jacques Rousseau's The Social Contract

Government is a contract between rulers and the peoplle

125

Voltaire (2)

Religious toleration
Seperation of church and state

126

Where did Enlightenment fueled rebellions ocurr? (2)

Americas
France

127

Which American documents incorportate Englightenment ideas? (3)

Declaration of Independence
Constitution
Bill of Rights

128

Causes of the French Revolution? (2)

1. Influence of Englightenment ideas
2. Influence of American Revolution

129

Events of the French Revolution? (2)

Storming of the Bastille
Reign of Terror

130

Outcomes of the French Revolution (2)

1. End of absolution monarchy of Louis XVI
2. Rise of Napoleon

131

Age of Reason (Enlightement) witnessed ...

Inventions that stimulated trade and transportation

132

Johan Sebastian Bach

Baroque composer

133

Mozart

Classical composer

134

Voltaire

Philosopher

135

Migeul de Cervantes

Novelist

136

Eugene Delacroix

Painter

137

New paintings depicted (4)

Classical subjects
Public events
Natural scenes
Portraits

138

New technologies (3)

1. Better roads
2. Farm tools ++
3. Ship design ++

139

What were Latin American revolutions influenced by?

European revolutions

140

What was the effect of Spanish conquests in Latin america? (2)

Decline of native populations
Introduction of slaves from Africa

141

Conquistadors

Given government authority by the crown -- later know as viceroys

142

What did colonial governments mirror?

Home governments

143

What religion had a strong influnces on the development of Latin American colonies?

Catholicism

144

What was a major element of the Latin American colonies?

Mining of precious metals for export

145

What Latin American major cities were established as outposts of colonial authority? (5)

Havana
Mexico City
Lima
Sao Paulo
Buenos Aires

146

What king of class structure did Latin American colonies have?

Ridgid class structure

147

What were the 3 class groups in Latin American colonies?

Viceroy -- colonial officers
Creoles
Mestizos

148

What happened in the Haitian revolution? (3)

Slaves rebelled
Abolished slavery
Won independence

149

Who started the Mexican independence movement?

Father Miguel Hidalgo

150

Which colonies gained independence? (3)

French
Spanish
Portuguese

151

Which Latin American countries established indpendent nations? (5)

Mexico
Haiti
Colombia
Venezuela
Brazil

152

Who was Toussaint L'Ouverture?

Former slave who led the Haitian rebellion against the French

153

Which armies did Toussaint L'Ouverture defeat? (3)

Spain
France
Brazil

154

Who was Simon Bolivar

Native resident who led revolutionary efforts in Venezuela

155

Monroe Doctrine

Alterted European powers that American continents should not be considered for any future colonization

156

Impact of the Monroe Doctrine in Latin America

Latine American nations were acknowledged to be independent

157

What was the impact of Napoleon and the Congress of Vienna?

Changes in politcal boundries in Europe

158

What did Napoleon attempt to do (unsuccessfully)

Unify Europe under French domination

159

Congress of Vienna

Attempted to restore Europe as it had been before the French Revolution and Napoleonic conquests

160

Napoleonic code (3)

1. Forbade privileges based on birth
2. Allowed freedom of religion
3. Government jobs should go to the most qualified

161

What was the legacy of Napoleon

Awakend feelings of national pride (growth of nationalism)

162

Legacy of the Congress of Vienna led to which doctrine?

Balance of power

163

How did Congress of Vienna affect monarchies?

Restored them

164

What political philosphies did the Congress of Vienna lead to? (2)

Liberalism
Conservatism

165

What stimulated the growth of nationalism? (3)

National pride
Economic competition
Democratic ideals

166

What was a negative effect of the Congress of Vienna?

Widespread discontent in Europe (especially in Italy and Germany)

167

In contrast to continental Europe. how did Great Britian expand politcal rights? (2)

Legislative means
Abolishing slavery

168

Who unified northern Italy?

Count Cavour

169

Who joined southern Italy to northern Italy?

Giuseppe Garibaldi

170

Which states for the last to join Italy?

Papal states (including Rome)

171

Otto von Bismarck

Led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings

172

Realpolitik

Justifies all means to achieve and hold politcal power

173

What war led to the creatio nof the German state?

Franco-Prussian War

174

Where did the Industrial Revolution originate?

England

175

Why did the Industrial Revolution originate in England? (2)

1. Natural resources like coal, iron ore
2. Steam engine

176

Where did the Industrial Revolution spread to? (2)

Europe
United States

177

What were important industries in the Industrial Revolution? (3)

Cotton textile
Iron
Steel

178

What movement encourgaged the Industrial Revolution?

British Enclosure Movement

179

What system rose in the Industrial Revolution?

Factory system

180

What indutry declines in the Industrial Revolution?

Cottage industries

181

Who invented the spinning jenny?

James Hargreaves

182

Steam engine (perosn)

James Watt

183

Cotton gin (person)

Eli Whitney

184

Process for making steel (person)

Henry BEssemer

185

Edward Jenner

Developed smallpox vaccination

186

Louis Pasteur

Discovered bacteria

187

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on population

Population increased

188

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on standards of living

Standards of living increased for many though not all

189

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on transportation

Improved transportation

190

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on environment

Pollution increased

191

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on education

Education increased

192

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on working class

Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions

193

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on middle class

Growth of middle class

194

What fueld the Industrial Revolution? (2)

Capitalism
Market competition

195

Which person is associated with captialism

Adam Smith -- Wealth of Nations

196

How did captialism impact the standards of living

Impoved standards of living

197

How did capitalism impact middle class

Growth of middle class

198

What were dissatisfactions with captialism? (2)

1. Poor working condition
2. Unequal distribution of wealth in society

199

Where were theories opposed to captialism? (2)

Socialism
Communism

200

Who is assocaited with socialism and communism?

Karl Marx -- Communist Manifesto and Das Capital

201

What were socialism and communism a response to?

Injustices of captialism

202

What did socialism and communism emphasize?

Redistribution of wealth

203

What were agricultural economies based on

Family unit

204

Nature of work in the factory system (2)

1. Harsh working conditions
2. Men competing with women and children for wages

205

What invention increased demand for slave labor?

Cotton gin

206

Which countries outlawed the slave trade and then slavery? (2)

United States
Great Britian

207

Who entered the workplace as cheap labor (2)

Women and children

208

How did the public react to child labor

Reform to end it

209

How did the Industrial Revolution affect education?

Expansion of education

210

How did the Industrial Revolution affect women?

Increased demands for suffrage

211

Why did workers go on strikesd? (2)

Increase wages
Improve working conditions

212

What did labor united lobby for? (2)

1. Worker rights
2. Collective bargaining between labor and management

213

European nations competed to control which continents to secure their economic and politcal success? (2)

Asia
Africa

214

What forms did resistancfe to imperialism take? (2)

Armed conflict
Intellectual movements

215

What motivated European nations to compete for colonial possession?

Nationalism

216

How did European imperialism affect colonial industries?

Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries

217

Forms of imperialism (3)

1. Colonies
2. Protectorates (relationship of protection and partial control assumed by a superior power over a dependent country or region)
3. Spheres of influence (claim by a state to exclusive or predominant control over a foreign area or territory)

218

Imperialism in Africa and Asia (7)

1. European domination
2. European conlicts carried to the colonies
3. Christian missionary efforts
4. Spheres of influence in China
5. Suez Canal
6. East India Company's domination of Indian states
7. American opening of Japan to trade

219

Responses of colonize peoples (2)

1. Armed conflicts (Boxer Rebellion)
2. Rise of nationalism (Indian nationalist party)

220

When was World War 1?

1914-1918

221

Causes of World War 1 (6)

1. Alliances
2. Nationalism
3. Diplomatic failures
4. Imperialism
5. Competition over colonies
6. Militarism

222

What what the catalyst for WW1?

Assassination of Austria's Archduke Ferdinand

223

Who entered in the middle of WW1?

US

224

Who left in the middle of WW1?

Russia

225

Who were the major leaders of WW1? (2)

Woodrow Wilson (US)
Kaiser Wilhelm II (Germany)

226

Colonies participation in WW1 led to...?

Increased demands for independence

227

WW1 led to the end of which empires? (3)

Imperial Russia
Ottoman
German
Austro-Hungary

228

Treaty of Versailles (5)

1. Forced Germany to accept guilt
2. Forced Germany to pay repartations
3. Took German territory
4. Limited the German military
5. League of Nations

229

The Tsarist Russia that entered WW1 was characterized by? (2)

Absolute monarchy
Sharp class divisions

230

Inadequate adminstration in WW1 led to? (2)

Revolution
Unsuccessful provisional government

231

Causes of 1917 revolutions (4)

1. Defeat in war with Japan in 1905
2. Landless peasantry
3. Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II
4. MIlitary defeats and high casualties in WW1

232

Bolshevik Revolution and civil war (2)

1. Proletariat rose up against the tzar and upper classes
2. Tzar Nicholas II and family were executed

233

Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy (2)

1. To hellp Russia's economy
2. Still come private owned businesses and farmers could keep some surplus

234

Who was Lenin's successor

Stalin

235

What was the League of Nations?

International cooperative organization

236

Why was the League of Nations established?

Prevent future wars

237

Who was not a member of the League of Nations?

US

238

Why did the League of Nations fail?

Did not have power to enforce its decisions

239

(Mandate system) During WW1, who agreed to divide the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves? (2)

Great Britain
France

240

The division of the Ottoman Empires through the mandate systems planted the seed for ..

Future Middle East conflict

241

Caused of the Great Depression (5)

1. German reparations
2. High portective tariffs
3. Expansion of credit
4. Stock Market Crash
5. Dominance of the United States in the global economy

242

When did the Stock Market crash?

1929

243

Impacts of the world depression (5)

1. High unemployment
2. Bank failures
3. Collapse of credit
4. Nazi Party's growing importance in Germany
5. Collapse of prices in world trade

244

Stalin

Russia (Communism)

245

Stalin's policies (4)

1. Five Year plans
2. Collectivization of farms (state run farms)
3. State industrialization
4. Secret police (KGB)

246

Great Purge

Killing of Stalin's enemies

247

Hitler

Germany

248

Germany during the interwar years (7)

1. Inflation
2. Depression
3. Anti-Semitism
4. Extreme nationalism
5. National socialism (Nazism)
6. Germany occumation of nearby counties
7. Democratic government weakened

249

Mussolini

Italy

250

Italy during the interwar years (3)

1. Rise of fascism
2. Ambition to restore the glory of Rome
3. Invasion of Ethiopia

251

Japan leaders (2)

Hirohity
Hideki Tojo

252

Japan during the interwar years (3)

Militarism
Industrialization
Invasions

253

Where did Japan invade (3)

Korea
Manchuria
China

254

Causes of WW2 (6)

1. Aggression by totalitarian powers
2. Nationalism
3. Failures of the Treaty of Versailles
4. Weakness of the League of Nations
5. Appeasement
6. Tendencies toward isolationism and pacifism in Europe and the United States

255

When was WW2?

1939-1954

256

D-Day

Allied invasio of Europe

257

Where were atomic bombs dropped? (2)

Hiroshima
Nagasaki

258

Franklin D. Roosevelt

US president

259

Harry Truman

US president

260

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Allied commander in Europe

261

Douglas MacArthur

US general

262

George Marshall

US general

263

Winston Churchill

British prime minister

264

Stalin

Soviet dictator

265

Hitler

Nazi dictator of Germany

266

Hideki Tojo

Japanese general

267

Hirohity

Emperor of Japan

268

Genocide

The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, politcal, religious, or cultural group

269

Elements leading to the Holocaust (5)

1. Totalitarianism
2. Nationalism
3. Anti Semitism
4. Germany's defeat in WW1
5. Hitler's belief in a master race

270

Final solution (2)

Extermination camps
Gas chambers

271

Other examples of genocide (4)

Armenian
USSR
Cambodia
Rwanda

272

Where was the Armenian genocide?

Ottoman Empire

273

Who were the perpetrators in the Cambodian genocide?

Pol Pot

274

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

Protect the inherent dignity and the qual and inalienable rights of humans

275

Outcomes of WW2 (6)

1. European powers' loss of empires
2. War crimes trials
3. Establishment of UN
4. Universal Declaration of Human Rights
5. Marshall Plan
6. New alliances

276

Iron Curtain

Division of Europe

277

Marshall Plan

US gave economic support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to prevent the spread of Soviet Communism

278

Efforts for reconstruction of Germany (3)

1. Demogratic government installed in Qest Germany and West Berlin
2. Germany and Berlin divided among the four allied powers
3. Emergence of West Germany as economic power

279

Efforts for reconstruction of Japan (4)

1. US occupation of Japan
2. Democracy and economic development
3. Elimination of Japan's military; US guaranteed securtity for Japan
4. Emergence of Japan as a dominant economy

280

Following WW2, the US occupied Japan under whom?

MacArthur

281

International Cooperative Organizations (3)

UN
NATO
Warsaw Pact

282

Who adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights?

Members of the UN

283

Yalta Conference

World War II conference of the US, Britain, and , which planned the final defeat and occupation of Nazi Germany.

284

What were the conflicting ideologies in the Cold War? (2)

Democracy vs dictatorship
Free enterprise system vs communism

285

Policy of Containment

Truman -- prevent the spread of communism abroad

286

Eastern Europe was made primarily of...?

Soviet satellite nations -- Stalins buffer nations

287

Deterrence

Dissuade an adversary from undertaking an action not yet started, or to prevent them from doing something that another state desires (nuclear warfare)

288

Collapse of communism in USSR and Eastern Europe (5)

1. Soviet economy collapses
2. Buffer countried wanted freedom
3. Tearing down of Berlin Wall
4. Break up of USSR
5. Expansion of NATO

289

Conatinment

Policy for preventing the expansion of communism

290

Where were there conflicts and revolutionary movements during the COld War?

China

291

How did the Chinese civil war end?

Divison of China into two nations

292

Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)

Nationalist China (Island of Taiwan)

293

Mao Zedong

Communist China (mainland China)

294

What war did communist China participate in?

Korean War

295

Which country's imperialism affected Vietnam?

French

296

Who was the Vietnamese revolutionary leader?

Ho Chi Minh

297

What kind of nation was Vietnam?

Divided nation

298

What type of government does Vietnam have today?

Communism

299

Gandhi (2)

1. Closer relationship between Indian and USSR
2. Developed nuclear program

300

Margaret Thatcher (4)

1. British Prime Minister
2. Free traade and less government regulation of business
3. Close relations with US
4. Asserted UK military power

301

Gorbachev (3)

1. Glasnost and perestroika
2. Fall of Berlin Wall
3. Oversaw peaceful transition to democracy

302

Glasnost

Policy that called for increased openness and transparency in government institutions

303

Perestroika

Restructuring of the Soviet political and economic system

304

Deng Xiaoping (2)

1. Reformed communist economy to market economy leading to rapid economic growth
2. Communist control of government continued

305

Indian National Congress

Dominated the Indian movement for independence from Great Britain

306

Who used to rule India?

British

307

Who helped lead the Indian independence movement?

Ghandi

308

What did Ghandi encourage? (2)

Civil disobediance
Passive resistance

309

Who got Pakistan?

Muslims

310

What is the worlds largest democratic nation?

Republic of India

311

Nerhu

Associate of Gandhi who supported western industrialization

First prime minister of India

312

Indian 1950 Constitution

South to prohibit caste discrimination

313

What did UN nations cuarantee colonial populations?

Right to self determination

314

Independence movement in Africa (4)

1. Self determination (UN charter)
2. Peaceful and violent revolutions
3. Pride in African cultures and heritage
4. Resentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation

315

Which nations lost colonies? (4)

Britain
France
Belgium
Portugal

316

West Africa

Peaceful transition

317

Algeria

War for independence from France

318

Kenya (2)

Violent struggle for independence from Britain
Leadership of Kenyatta

319

South Africa (2)

1. Struggle against the apartheid
2. Led by Nelson Mandela

320

Who established mandates in the Middle East?

League of Nations

321

What did mandates result in?

Conflicts created by religious differences

322

French mandates (2)

Syria
Lebanon

323

British mandates (2)

Jordan
Palestine (part became independent as the state of Israel)

324

Who was the prime minister of Israel?

Golda Meir

325

Golda Meir led Israel to victory in which war?

Yom Kippur War

326

Whose support did Golda Meir seek?

US

327

President of Egypt

Gamal Abdul Nasser

328

Nasser (3)

1. Nationalized the Suez Canal
2. Established relations with USSR
3. Built Aswan Dam

329

Aswan Dam

Dam situated across the Nile River

330

Present location of Judaism (2)

Israel
North America

331

Present location of Christianity (3)

Europe
North America
South America

332

Present location of Islam (3)

Middle East
Africa
Asia

333

Present location of Hinduism (1)

India

334

Present location of Buddhism (2)

East Asia
Southeast Asia

335

What challenges do developed and developing nations face? (3)

Migration
Ethnic and religious conflict
Impact of new technologies

336

What new technologies have created opportunities and challenges? (3)

Computers
Genetic engineering
Bioethics

337

Ethnic and religious conflict (5)

Middle East
Northern Ireland
Balkans
Horn of Africa
South Asia

338

Free market economies produce...? (2)

1. Rising standards of living
2. Expanding middle class

339

Recent examples the relationship between economic and politcal freedom (2)

Taiwan
South Korea

340

European Union

European organization set up to promote tariff free trade among members

341

Free trade

Elimination of trade barriers

342

NAFTA

North American free trade agreement
(Canada, US, Mexico)

343

WTO

Oversees trade among nations and makes sure it flows as smoothly and freely as possible

344

Terrorism

Use of violence and threats to intimidate and coerce for politcal reasons

345

Major cause of terrorism

Religious extremism

346

Munich Olympics

11 members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage