AP Exam Unit 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

AP World > AP Exam Unit 1 and 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in AP Exam Unit 1 and 2 Deck (98):
1

What is the evidence that explains the earliest history of humans and the planet?

Archeological evidence

2

Where did humans first appear on Earth?

East Africa

3

What were the characteristics of their society?

Relatively egalitarian

4

What were the characteristics of their technology?

Adapted their technology to new climate regions

5

What were the characteristics of their culture?

Adapted their culture to new climate regions

6

What were the uses of fire?

Aid hunt and foraging
Protect against predators
Adapt to cold environments

7

How did the earliest humans' society help them procure enought supplies to survive?

Economic structures focused on small kinship groups of hunting and gathering.
Through exchanges of people, ideas, and goods

8

What were the long term demographic effects of the Neolithic Revolution?

There was a moire reliable, but not necessarily more diversified food supply
Populations increased

9

What were the long term environmental effects of the Neolithic Revolution?

There was intensive cultivation of some plants and the exclusion of others

10

What were the long term social effects of the Neolithic Revolution?

Family groups gave way to village and later urban life
Patriarchy and forced labor systems developed giving elite men concentrated power

11

How did pastoral societies resemble early agricultural societies?

Like early agriculturalists, pastoralists tended to be more socially stratified than were hunter forages

12

Name two results of pastoralists' mobility

1. Rarely accumulated large amounts of material posessions
2. Serve as an important conduit for technological change as they interacted with settled populations

13

How did the Neolithic Revolution affect human societies economically and socially?

The Neolithic Revolution led to the development of new and more complex economic and social systems

14

Why did the Neolithic Revolution start?

As a response to climatic change

15

Where did the Neolithic Revolution first transform human populations?

1. Mesopotamia
2. Nile River Valley
3. Sub-Saharan Africa
4. Indus River Valley
5. Yellow River and Huang He Valley
6. Papua New Guinea
7. Mesoamerica
8. Andes

16

Where did pastoralism persist even after the Neolithic Revolution?

Grasslands of Afro-Eurasia

17

What various crops and animals were developed or domesticated during the Neolithic Revolution?

-

18

What labor adjustments did humans make in order to facilitated the Neolithic Revolution?

They worked cooperatively to clear land and to create water control systems

19

What is a civilization?

Large societies with cities and powerful states

20

What are the defining characteristics of a civilization?

Agricultural surpluses that permitted significant specialization of labor
Complex institution (bureaucracies, armies, religious heirarchies)
Social hierarchy
Long distance trading relations

21

How did civilizations develop and grow more complex before 600 BCE?

Competition for surpluses (food) led to greater social stratification, specialization of labor, increased trade, more complex systems of government and religion, and the development of record keeping

22

What were the effects of increasing complexity?

Spurred warfare between communities and/or with pastoralists -- this violence drove the development of new tecnolgies of war and urban defense

23

Where did the earliest civilizations develop (Mesopotamia, Egypt, Mohenjo Daro and Harrapa, Shang, Olmecs, Chavin)?

Mesopotamia: Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys
Egypt: Nile River Valley
Mohenjo Daro and Harrapa: Indus River Valley
Shang: Huang He Valley
Olmecs: Mesoamerica
Chavin: Andean South America

24

Why did they develop in these locations?

Because these locations had geographical and environmental settings where agriculture coudl flourish

25

What is a state?

A powerful new system of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas

26

Which segments of society usually supported the ruler?

Military

27

Why were some states able to expand and conquer neighboring states?

They were more favorably suited which allowed them to produce more surplus food and experience growing populations

28

How were the Hittites more favorably suited than other states?

They had access to iron

29

Give four examples of early empires in the Nile

--

30

Give four examples of early empires in the Tigris and Euphrates

--

31

What role did pastoralists play for civilizations?

They developed and spread new weapons and modes of transportation

32

What were two weapons the pastoralists helped spread?

Compound bows and iron weapons

33

What were two modes of transportation that pastoralists helped spread?

Chariots and horseback riding

34

How did culture play a role in unifying populations?

Through law, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art

35

What architectural forms did early civilizations produce?

Ziggurats, pyramids, temples, defensive walls, streets and roads, sewage, and water systems

36

Which social strata encouraged the development of art in ancient civilizations?

Elites

37

What forms record keeping developed in ancient civilizations?

Cuneiform, hieroglyphics, pictographs, alphabets, quipu

38

What was the relationship between literature and culture in ancient societies?

--

39

The Code of Hammurabi relfected what?

Social hierarchy

40

What pre 600 BCE relgions strongly incluenced later eras?

Vedic relgion, Hebrew monotheism, Zoroastrianism

41

Give two examples of trade relations prior to 600 BCE?

Egypt and Nubia
Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley

42

How did social and gender identities develop pre 600 BCE?

They intensified as states expanded and cities multiplied

43

How did religion help strengthen politcal ties within society?

Rulers used relgion to justify their rule (some were even considered divine)

Reinforced political stratification

44

How did religion help strengthen economic ties within society?

It reinforced economic stratification

45

How did religion help strengthen cultural ties within society?

It provided a bond among people and an ethical code to live by

46

How did religions promote a sense of unity?

Through providing providing an ethical code to live by

47

The codification of Hebrew Scriptures relfects what?

The influence of Mesopoamian cultural and legal traditions

48

Which three empires conquered various Jewish states?

Assyrian, Babylonian, Roman

49

Where did Jewish diasporic communited grow?

Around the Mediterranean and Middle East

50

What are characeteristics and core teachings of Hinduism?

Reincarnation
Caste System

51

What is a universal religion?

A religion that anyone can practice

52

The core beliefs of Buddhism are recorded into what?

Sutras and other scriptures

53

What was Buddhism a reaction to?

Vedic beliefs

54

How did Buddhism spread?

Support of the Mauryan Emperor Asocka

Efforts of missionaries and merchants

Establishment of Asian institutions

55

Where did Buddhism spread by 600 CE?

Throughout Asia

56

What are the core teachings of Confucianism

Social harmony can be acheived through proper rituals and relationships

57

What is a major Daoist writing?

Daodejing

58

Which parts of Chinese culture did Daoism influence?

Medical theory

Poetry

Metallurgy

Architecture

59

What is the core belief of Daoism?

Balance between human and natural

60

What was Christianity based off of>

Judaism

61

What was Christianity's originial attitude toward Roman and Hellenistic influences?

Rejected it (there was Roman imperial hostility)

62

How did Christianity spread?

Missionaries

Merchants

63

Under which Roman emperor did Christianity gain imperial support?

Constantine

64

What are the core ideas in Greco-Roman philosophy?

Science based logic
Empirical observation
Nature of political power
Hierarchy

65

How did Buddhism affect gender roles?

Through encouraging a monastic life

66

How did Confucianism affect gender roles?

Through its emphasis on filial piety

67

What other religions and cultural traditions were common by 600 CE?

Shamanism
Animism
Ancestor veneration

68

In which regions did ancestor veneration persist?

Africa
Mediterranean
East Asia
Andean

69

How did the number and size of Classical Empires compare to the Ancient Era and how did they accomplish this

Larger

Through imposing politcal unity

70

Name Location
Persian Empires

Southwest Asia

71

Name Location
Qin and Han

East Asia

72

Name Location
Maurya and Gupta

South Asia

73

Name Location
Phoenicia and its polonies, Greek city states, Hellenistic and Roman empires

Mediterranean

74

Teothuacan, Maya city states

Mesoamerica

75

Moche

Andean South America

76

What new political methods were created in order to rule the larger empires in the Classical Empires?

1. Centralized governments
2. Elaborate legal systems
3. Bureaucracies

77

Which empires adminstered these new political methods?

China
Persia
Rome
South Asia (India)

78

How did imperial governments project military power over large areas?

1. Diplomacy
2. Supply lines
3. Fortifications
4. Defensive walls
5. Roads
6. Drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from the local populations or conquered peoples

79

How did empires promote trade and economic integrations? (2)

1. Building roads
2. Issuing currencies

80

What function did imperial cities perform? (3)

1. Centers of trade
2. Public performance of religious rituals
3. Politcal adminstration centers

81

What social classes/occupations were common in empires? (6)

1. Cultivators
2. Laborers
3. Slaves
4. Artisans
5. Merchants
6. Elites

82

What were common labor systems in the Classical Era? (5)

1. Corvee
2. Slavery
3. Rents and tributes
4. Peasant communities
5. Family and household production

83

What gender and family structue continued throughout the Classical Era?

Patriarchy

84

What caused Classical Empires to decline, collapse, or transform into something else?

Politcal, cultural, and adminstrative difficulties

85

Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage such as... (4)

1. Deforestation
2. Desertificaiton
3. Soil erosion
4. Silted rivers

86

What generated social tensions and economic difficulties?

Concentration of wealth in the hands of the elite

87

What external problems did China face?

Xiongnu

88

What external problems did the Gupta Empire face?

White Huns

89

What external problems did the Romans face?

Northern and Eastern neighbors

90

Why did long distance trade increase dramatically in period 2?

Increased demand for raw materials and luxury goods

91

What was commonly traded along these networks?

1. People
2. Technology
3. Religous and cultural beliefts
4. Food crops
5. Domesticated animals
6. Diseases

92

What new technologies permitted the use of domesticated pack animals to transport goods across longer routes? (3)

1. Yokes
2. Saddle
3. Stirrup

93

What were the primary domesticated pack animals used for long distance trade? (4)

1. Horses
2. Oxen
3. Llamas
4. Camels

94

What innovations in maritime technology arose in period 2? (3)

1. Lateen sail
2. Dhow ships
3. Knowledge of monsoon winds

95

What crops spread from South Asia to the Middle East in period 2? (2)

1. Rice
2. Cotton

96

What was the result of this diffusion of crops?

Changes in farming and irrigation techniques (development of the qanat system)

97

What effects did dieases have on Classical empires?

1. Diminished urban populations
2. Contributed to the decline of some empires (Rome and and China)

98

What was the relationship between trade networks and religions?

As religions traveled across trade routes, the transformed