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Flashcards in AP Exam Unit 3 Deck (74):
1

How did trade networks in the post-Classical Era compare to the Classical Era?

They witnessed greater action

2

What functions did these commercial networks serve? (3)

1. Conduits for cultural diffusion
2. Conduits for technological diffusion
3. Conduits for biological diffusion

3

What role did pastoral ad nomadic groiups play in these trade networks?

They helped sustain the trading networks

4

What major religion emerged at the start of this period?

Islam

5

How did Islam spread? (2)

1. Trade
2. Warfare

6

How did the physical size of post-Classical trade networks compare tot he previous era?

They were larger and had an increased volume of trade

7

What contributed to this increased trade? (2)

Improvemets in technological and commercial practices

8

What Classical era trade networks continued during the post-Classical era? (4)

Silk Roads
Mediterraean Sea
Trans-Saharan
Indian Ocean basin

9

Which new cities were added durig the post-Classical era?

Timbuktu
Swahili city states
Hangshou
Calicut
Baghdad
Venice
Melaka
Tenochtitlan

10

What new trade networks developed in this era? (2)

Mesoamerica
Andes

11

This era experience the growth of interregional trade in what luxury goods?

Silk
Cotton textiles
Porcelain
Sices
Precious metals
Gems
Slaves
Exotic Animals

12

What new technologies enabled the growth of interregional trade networks? (5)

More sophisticated caravan organization
Compass
Astrolabe
Larger ship designs
New forms of credit and monetization

13

What factors encouraged commercial growth in the post classical era?

State practices (minting of coins and paper moey)
Trading organizations (Hanseatic League)
State sponsored commercial infrastructures (Grand canal in China)

14

What was the Hanseatic League?

Economic and defensive confederation of free towns in northern Germany and neighboring areas

15

What existing empires expanded in this era? (3)

China
Byzantine
Caliphates

16

What new empire arose in this period?

Mongols

17

How did the expansion of empires and traade etworks affect the relationship between peoples inside or outside those zones?

It facilitated trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors' economies ad trade networks

18

What were the effects of migration in the post classical era? (2)

Environmental
Linguistic

19

What did the expansion and intesification of long distance trade routes depend on?

People's understanding of a particular regional evironment and the subsequent technological adaptations to them

20

How did the Scandinavians Vikings adapt?

They used their longboats to travel in coastal and open water as well as rivers ad estuaries

21

How did the Arabs and Berbers adapt?

They adated camels to travel across ad around the Sahara

22

How did the central Asian pastoral groups adapt?

They used horses to travel in the stepes

23

How did the Bantu migration affect the environment?

By facilitating the transmission of iron technologies in Sub Saharan Africa

24

How did the Polynesian peoples affect the environment?

By cultivating transplanted foods and domestic animals as they moved to new islands

25

What were the linguistic affects of migrations?

Diffusion of some languages or the emergence of new languages (spread of Bantu languages including Swahili, spread of Turkic and Arabic languages)

26

How did trade networks as a whole develop during this period?

The existing trade networks intensified while there was also the creation of new networks

27

Where did Islam develop?

Arabian peninsula

28

How did Islam develop?

From the interactions between Jews, Christians, ad Zoroastrians with local peoples

29

How did Islam expand?

Military expansion
Activities of merchants and missionaries

30

What institutions did merchants create to foster both trade and cultural diffusion?

Diaspora commuities where they itroduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture

31

Where did Muslim merchants set up diaspora commuities?

Indian Ocean region

32

Where did Chinese merchants set up diaspora commuities?

Southeast Asia

33

Where did Sogdian merchants set up diaspora commuities?

Central Asia

34

Where did Jews set up diaspora commuities? (3)

Mediterranean
Indian Ocean basin
Silk Roads

35

What do the writigs of interregional travelers such as Ibn Battuta ad Marco Polo illustrate?

Both the extendt and the limitations of intercultural knowledge ad understanding

36

How did post classical trade affect the diffusion of leteray, artistic, ad cultural traditions?

It caused it

37

How did post classical trade affect the difusion of scientific and technological traditions?

It caused it

38

What influenced Muslim scholars? (2)

Greek ad Indian mathematics

39

How did Greek sciece and philosophy return to Western Europe?

Via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia

40

Where did the gunpowder (originally from East Asia) spread?

Islamic empires and Western Europe

41

What were the biological effects of post classical trade?

Diffusion of crops and pathogens along trade routes

42

What new food was adopted in Africa?

Bananas

43

What new food was adopted in East Asia?

New rice varieties

44

What new foods spread throughout Dar-al Islam and the Mediterranean basin? (3)

Cotton
Sugar
Citrus

45

What disease also spread via post classical trade networks?

Black Death

46

How did post classical states aviod the mistakes of classical empires in the regions where classical empires collapsed?

By combining traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations bettwer suited to the current circumstances

47

Name two examples of reconstituted governments following the collapse of empries?

Byzantine
China dynasties (Sui, Tang, Song)

48

What are some sources of power and legitimacy? (3)

Patriarchy
Religion
Land owing elites

49

What are some innovations (3)

New methods of taxation
Tributary systems
Adaption of religious institutions

50

What new forms of governance emerged in the psot calssical era?

Islamic states
Mongol Khanates

51

What are examples of the Islamic states the arose in this period? (3)

Abbasids
Muslim Iberia
Delhi sultanates

52

Which traditions did Islamic states synthesize/borrow?

Persia

53

Which traditions did Japan synthesize/borrow?

China

54

In the Americas, where did city states flourish?

Maya reigons

55

In the Americas, where did imperial systems develop? (2)

Mexica (Aztecs)
Inca

56

What was a result of interregional conflicts between states and empires?

Technological and cultural transfers

57

Across the Mongol empires during the crusades, which empires experienced significant technological and cultural transfers between each other?

Tang China and the Abbasids

58

What was an overall worldwide economic trend?

Increase in productivity and production

59

Why did agricultural production increase significantly during this period?

Technological innovations

60

What new innovations affected agriculture in this era? (5)

Champa rice varieties
Chinampa field system
Waru waru field cultivation in the Andean
Improved terracing techniques
Horse collar

61

Crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to where?

Equivalent climates in other regions

62

Which states' merchants and artisan expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export? (3)

China
Persia
India

63

Industrial production of which metals expanded in China?

Iron
Steel

64

Why did some post classical urban areas decline? (4)

Invasions
Disease
Decline of agricultural productivity
Little Ice Age

65

Why did some post classical urban areas prosper and grow? (7)

End of invasions
Availability of safe and reliable transport
Rise of commerce
Warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300
Increased agricultural productivity
Subsequent rising population
Greater availability of labor

66

What role did cities play in their societies during this era?

The same role as in the past as governmental, religious, and commercial centers

Older cities declined while newer cities took on these established roles

67

What pre existing labor systems continued? (7)

Free peasant agriculture
Nomadic pastoralism
Craft production
Guild organization
Coerced and unfree labor
Government imposed labor taxes
Military obligations

68

Continuities in social structures (2)

Patriarchy

Shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies

69

Where did women exercise more pwer? (4)

Mongols
West Africa
Japan
Southeast Asia

70

What and where did new forms of coerced labor appear? (2)

Serfdom -- Europe and Japan

Elaboration of the mita -- Inca

71

Where did free peasants stage revolts? (2)

China
Byzantine

72

Where did the demand for slavery increase?

Central Eurasia
Parts of Africa
Eastern Mediterranean

73

Why did demands of slavery increase?

Military and domestic purposes

74

The diffusion of which religions/ideologies led to significant changes in gender relations and family structures? (4)

Buddhism
Christianity
Islam
Neo Confucianism