Flashcards in AP Exam Unit 3 Deck (74):
How did trade networks in the post-Classical Era compare to the Classical Era?
They witnessed greater action
What functions did these commercial networks serve? (3)
1. Conduits for cultural diffusion
2. Conduits for technological diffusion
3. Conduits for biological diffusion
What role did pastoral ad nomadic groiups play in these trade networks?
They helped sustain the trading networks
What major religion emerged at the start of this period?
How did Islam spread? (2)
How did the physical size of post-Classical trade networks compare tot he previous era?
They were larger and had an increased volume of trade
What contributed to this increased trade? (2)
Improvemets in technological and commercial practices
What Classical era trade networks continued during the post-Classical era? (4)
Indian Ocean basin
Which new cities were added durig the post-Classical era?
Swahili city states
What new trade networks developed in this era? (2)
This era experience the growth of interregional trade in what luxury goods?
What new technologies enabled the growth of interregional trade networks? (5)
More sophisticated caravan organization
Larger ship designs
New forms of credit and monetization
What factors encouraged commercial growth in the post classical era?
State practices (minting of coins and paper moey)
Trading organizations (Hanseatic League)
State sponsored commercial infrastructures (Grand canal in China)
What was the Hanseatic League?
Economic and defensive confederation of free towns in northern Germany and neighboring areas
What existing empires expanded in this era? (3)
What new empire arose in this period?
How did the expansion of empires and traade etworks affect the relationship between peoples inside or outside those zones?
It facilitated trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors' economies ad trade networks
What were the effects of migration in the post classical era? (2)
What did the expansion and intesification of long distance trade routes depend on?
People's understanding of a particular regional evironment and the subsequent technological adaptations to them
How did the Scandinavians Vikings adapt?
They used their longboats to travel in coastal and open water as well as rivers ad estuaries
How did the Arabs and Berbers adapt?
They adated camels to travel across ad around the Sahara
How did the central Asian pastoral groups adapt?
They used horses to travel in the stepes
How did the Bantu migration affect the environment?
By facilitating the transmission of iron technologies in Sub Saharan Africa
How did the Polynesian peoples affect the environment?
By cultivating transplanted foods and domestic animals as they moved to new islands
What were the linguistic affects of migrations?
Diffusion of some languages or the emergence of new languages (spread of Bantu languages including Swahili, spread of Turkic and Arabic languages)
How did trade networks as a whole develop during this period?
The existing trade networks intensified while there was also the creation of new networks
Where did Islam develop?
How did Islam develop?
From the interactions between Jews, Christians, ad Zoroastrians with local peoples
How did Islam expand?
Activities of merchants and missionaries
What institutions did merchants create to foster both trade and cultural diffusion?
Diaspora commuities where they itroduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture
Where did Muslim merchants set up diaspora commuities?
Indian Ocean region
Where did Chinese merchants set up diaspora commuities?
Where did Sogdian merchants set up diaspora commuities?
Where did Jews set up diaspora commuities? (3)
Indian Ocean basin
What do the writigs of interregional travelers such as Ibn Battuta ad Marco Polo illustrate?
Both the extendt and the limitations of intercultural knowledge ad understanding
How did post classical trade affect the diffusion of leteray, artistic, ad cultural traditions?
It caused it
How did post classical trade affect the difusion of scientific and technological traditions?
It caused it
What influenced Muslim scholars? (2)
Greek ad Indian mathematics
How did Greek sciece and philosophy return to Western Europe?
Via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia
Where did the gunpowder (originally from East Asia) spread?
Islamic empires and Western Europe
What were the biological effects of post classical trade?
Diffusion of crops and pathogens along trade routes
What new food was adopted in Africa?
What new food was adopted in East Asia?
New rice varieties
What new foods spread throughout Dar-al Islam and the Mediterranean basin? (3)
What disease also spread via post classical trade networks?
How did post classical states aviod the mistakes of classical empires in the regions where classical empires collapsed?
By combining traditional sources of power and legitimacy with innovations bettwer suited to the current circumstances
Name two examples of reconstituted governments following the collapse of empries?
China dynasties (Sui, Tang, Song)
What are some sources of power and legitimacy? (3)
Land owing elites
What are some innovations (3)
New methods of taxation
Adaption of religious institutions
What new forms of governance emerged in the psot calssical era?
What are examples of the Islamic states the arose in this period? (3)
Which traditions did Islamic states synthesize/borrow?
Which traditions did Japan synthesize/borrow?
In the Americas, where did city states flourish?
In the Americas, where did imperial systems develop? (2)
What was a result of interregional conflicts between states and empires?
Technological and cultural transfers
Across the Mongol empires during the crusades, which empires experienced significant technological and cultural transfers between each other?
Tang China and the Abbasids
What was an overall worldwide economic trend?
Increase in productivity and production
Why did agricultural production increase significantly during this period?
What new innovations affected agriculture in this era? (5)
Champa rice varieties
Chinampa field system
Waru waru field cultivation in the Andean
Improved terracing techniques
Crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to where?
Equivalent climates in other regions
Which states' merchants and artisan expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export? (3)
Industrial production of which metals expanded in China?
Why did some post classical urban areas decline? (4)
Decline of agricultural productivity
Little Ice Age
Why did some post classical urban areas prosper and grow? (7)
End of invasions
Availability of safe and reliable transport
Rise of commerce
Warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300
Increased agricultural productivity
Subsequent rising population
Greater availability of labor
What role did cities play in their societies during this era?
The same role as in the past as governmental, religious, and commercial centers
Older cities declined while newer cities took on these established roles
What pre existing labor systems continued? (7)
Free peasant agriculture
Coerced and unfree labor
Government imposed labor taxes
Continuities in social structures (2)
Shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies
Where did women exercise more pwer? (4)
What and where did new forms of coerced labor appear? (2)
Serfdom -- Europe and Japan
Elaboration of the mita -- Inca
Where did free peasants stage revolts? (2)
Where did the demand for slavery increase?
Parts of Africa
Why did demands of slavery increase?
Military and domestic purposes