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Flashcards in AP Exam Unit 6 Deck (100):
1

How did science affect humans' conception of the natural world in the 20th century? (2)

1. Altered understandings of the universe and the natural world
2. Led to the development of new technologies

2

How did new technologies affect population?

It cause unprecedented population growth

3

What was the affect of new mode of communicationa nd transportation?

Virturally eliminated the problem of geographical distance

4

What new scientific models transformed human understandings of the world? (4)

Theory of relativity
Quantum mechanics
Big Band theory
Psychology

5

Which scientific discovery affected humans ability to feed and care for themselves?

Green Revolution

6

What did the Green Revolution do?

Produce food for the earth's growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture

7

Which medical innovations increased the ability of humans to survive? (3)

Polio vaccine
Antibiotics
Artificial heart

8

What new energy technologies affected the 20th century? (2)

Oil
Nuclear power

9

What was the affect of new energy technologies such as oil and nuclear power? (2)

Raised productivity
Increased production of material goods

10

How did humans' relationship to the environment change? (3)

1. Expointed and competed over finite resources
2. Global warming
3. Pollution

11

What were causes of gloabl warming? (2)

Green house gases
Other pollutants

12

What did pollution threaten?

Water and air supply

13

What were continuities in the consequences of the human impact on the environment? (2)

Deforestation
Desertification

14

What happened to the rate of extinction of species?

Accelerated

15

What caused some of the major demographic chagnes? (3)

Disease
Scientific innovations
Conflict

16

Coninuity in disease

Disease associated with poverty

17

Diseases associated with poverty (3)

Malaria
Tuberculosis
Cholera

18

New diseases (3)

1919 influenza
Ebola
HIV/AIDS

19

What was the affect of changing lifestyles on certain diseases?

Increased longevity which led to higher incidents of certain diseases (diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimers)

20

How did the inverntion of reliable birth control affect gender roles?

Gave women greater control over fertility

21

How did military technology affect wartime causalties?

Improved technology led to increased levels of wartime casualties

22

Improved military technologies (3)

Tanks
Airplanes
Atomic Bomb

23

New tactics (2)

Trench warfare
Fire bombing

24

Increased incident of wartime casualties (1)

Hiroshima

25

Internal and external factors challenging politcal stability (5)

1. Ethnic and religious conflicts
2. Secessionist movements
3. Territorial partitions
4. Economic dependency
5. Legacies of colonialism

26

How did the world politcal order transform?

Europe dominated the global politcal order at the beginning of the century, but transregional politcal organizations dominated at the century's end

27

Which older land based empires collapsed? (3)

Ottoman
Russian
Qing

28

Why did older land based empires decline and/or collapse? (4)

Economic hardship
Politcal and social discontent
Technological stagnation
Military defeat

29

By what means did imperial colonies achieve independence? (2)

Negotiation
Armed struggle

30

Which coloies negotiated their independence? (2)

India and the Gold Coast from the British Empire

31

Which colonies achieved their iddependence through armed struggle? (3)

Algeria from French
Vietnam from French
Angola from Portuguese

32

What new movements challenged that status quo during imperial rule? (2)

Emerging ideologies
Anti imperialism

33

Nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa who challenged imperial rule (3)

Gandhi
Ho Chi Minh
Kwame Nkrumah

34

What did regional, religious, and ethnic movements achieve? (2)

Challenging colonial rule
Inheriting imperial boundries

35

What new identities were used to unite populations soread across national movements?

Transnational movements

36

Transnational movements (3)

Communism
pan Arabism
pan Africanism

37

What ideologies were often used to undo imperialism? (2)

Communism
Socialism

38

Where did movements to resdistribute land and resources develop? (3)

Africa
Asia
Latin America

39

How ere colonial peoples affected by the change of old colonial boundries?

Population resettlements

40

Population resettlements (3)

Indian Pakistan partition
Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine
Division of the Middle East into mandatory states (certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I)

41

How were relationships between imperial powers and former colonies maintained after the end of those empires?

Migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles

42

Migrations of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (3)

South Asians to Britain
Algerians to France
Filipinos to United States

43

What circumstances contributed to genocide and mass refugee populations?

Ethnic violence

44

Ethnic violence (4)

Armenia
Holocaust
Cambodia
Rwanda

45

Refugee populations (2)

Palestinians
Darfurians

46

What ideologies did governments use to mobilize thier state's resources? (3)

Fascism
Nationalism
Communism

47

Where were these state resources located? (3)

Home country
Colonies
Former colonies

48

Consciption of colonial people for soldiers (2)

India (Gurkha soldiers)
Australia (ANZAC)

49

How did governments mobilize their populations? (4)

Politcal speeches
Art
Media
Intensified forms of nationalism

50

How did the World Wars affect the nature of war?

Made them "total wars"

51

What global conflict was their in the first half of the century? (6)

1. Imperial expansion by European powers and Japan
2. Competition for resources
3. Ethnic conflict
4. Great power rivalries between Great Britian and Germany
5. Nationalist ideolies
6. Economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression

52

How did the global balance of economic and politcal power shift after WW2?

Evolved into the Cold War

53

How did the world's balance of power change during the Cold War?

United States and Soviet Union emerged as superpowers

54

What the the United States and Soviet Union emergence as superpowers lead to?

Ideologial struggle between capitalism and communism

55

What were the Cold War's military consequences? (2)

New military alliances
Proxy wars (war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly)

56

Military alliances (2)

NATO
Warsaw Pact

57

Proxy wars in (3)

Latin America
Africa
Asia

58

What caused the Cold War to end?

Dissolution of the Soviet Union

59

How did various reactions to the violence of the 20th century compare?

Some opposed this trend while others intesified the conflicts

60

How did groups respons do the many wars?

Challenged the wars (Picasso's Guernica, anti nuclear movement during the cold war, Thich Quand Duc's self immolation)

61

How did others respond

Promoting nonviolence (Tolstoy, Ghandhi, MLK)

62

What alternatives were offered to the economic, politcal, and social status quo? (3)

1. Non aligned movement which presented an alternative politcal bloc to the Cold War
2. Tiananmen Square protests that promoted democracy in China
3. Anti Apartheid Movement

63

How did reactions by governments and militaries affect the degree of conflict during the 20th century?

They often further intensified it

64

Why did some movements use terrorism?

To achieve politcal aims

65

Violent movements (3)

IRA (Irish republican revolutionary military)
ETA (Basque National Liberation Movement)
Al-Qaeda

66

Influences of global conflicts on popular culture are found in...? (4)

Dada (art movement of the Europeans)
James Bond
Socialist Realism
Video games

67

What new governmental institutions emerged as a result of the 20th century conflicts?

Institutions of global governance

68

How did the new understandings of this era manifest themselver?

Cultural production

69

Describe the relationship between institutions of global governance and new social conditions

They shaped and adpated to each other

70

How did states respond to the 20th century economic challenges?

In a variety of ways

71

How did the communist states of the Soviet Union and China respond to the 20th century economic challenges?

1. Governments directed the national economies
2. Governments oversaw the development of industry

72

Five-Year Plans

Soviet economic practice of planning to augment agricultural and industrial output by designated quotas for a limited period of usually five years

73

Great Leap Forward

Economic and social campaign of China which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of rapid industrialization and collectivization

74

How did the Great Depression affect governments' relationship to their economy

With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in the economy

75

What role did governments play in newly independent states after WW2?

Governments took on a strong role in guiding the economy to promote economic development

76

Governments promoting economic development (2)

Egypt: Nasser's promotion of economic developement
East Asia: Encouragement of export oriented economies

77

At the end of the 20th century, what did many governments encourage? (2)

Free market economic policies
Economic liberalizations

78

Which countries/leaders promoted free market economic policies and economic liberalization? (3)

US: Regan
Britain: Margaret Thatcher
China: Deng Xiaoping

79

How did international organizations affect the relationship of states and peoples around the world?

States became increasingly interdependent (relationship in which each member is mutually dependent on the others)

80

What was the purpose of new internation organizations such as the League of Nations of the UN? (2)

Maintain world peace
Facilitate internationa cooperation

81

What were the economic effects of new international organizations?

Spread of the principles and practices associated with free market economics

82

Which new international organizations sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics? (3)

IMF
World Bank
WTO (World Trade Organization)

83

What spurred the development of humanitarian organizations?

Humanitarians crises

84

Humanitarian organizations (5)

UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund )
Red Cross
Amnesty International
Doctors Without Borders
WHO (World Health Organization)

85

What was the purpose of regional trading blocs?

Promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders

86

Regional trade agreements (2)

EU
NAFTA

87

What was the politcal affect of multi national corportions?

Challenging of state authority and autonomy

88

Multi national corporationss (3)

Shell
Coca Cola
Sony

89

How did these economic developments affect the distribution of world resources?

Increased inequalities

90

When people conceptualized society in new ways, what old assumptions did they challenge? (4)

Race
Class
Gender
Religion

91

How were reconfigured traditions spread?

New technologies

92

What new notion gained traction?

Human rights

93

Which documents illustrate the gained traction of human rights? (2)

UN Declartion of Human Rights
End of the White Australia Policy

94

What did increased interation among diverse people lead to? (2)

New cultural identites
Exclsuionary reactions

95

New cultural identites (1)

Negritude

96

Exclusionary reactions (3)

Xenophobia
Race riots
Citizenship restrictions

97

How did communites of faith respond tot eh rapid changes in the 20th century? (2)

Developed new forms of spirituality
Chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to politcal issues

98

How did the global nature of culture affect sports?

Increased the practice of sports and reflected national and social aspirtations

99

Global sports (3)

World Cup soccer
Olympics
Cricket

100

What did changes in communication and transportaition technology anable?

Wide spread diffusion of music and film (reggae and Bollywood)