Flashcards in AP Exam Unit 6 Deck (100):
How did science affect humans' conception of the natural world in the 20th century? (2)
1. Altered understandings of the universe and the natural world
2. Led to the development of new technologies
How did new technologies affect population?
It cause unprecedented population growth
What was the affect of new mode of communicationa nd transportation?
Virturally eliminated the problem of geographical distance
What new scientific models transformed human understandings of the world? (4)
Theory of relativity
Big Band theory
Which scientific discovery affected humans ability to feed and care for themselves?
What did the Green Revolution do?
Produce food for the earth's growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture
Which medical innovations increased the ability of humans to survive? (3)
What new energy technologies affected the 20th century? (2)
What was the affect of new energy technologies such as oil and nuclear power? (2)
Increased production of material goods
How did humans' relationship to the environment change? (3)
1. Expointed and competed over finite resources
2. Global warming
What were causes of gloabl warming? (2)
Green house gases
What did pollution threaten?
Water and air supply
What were continuities in the consequences of the human impact on the environment? (2)
What happened to the rate of extinction of species?
What caused some of the major demographic chagnes? (3)
Coninuity in disease
Disease associated with poverty
Diseases associated with poverty (3)
New diseases (3)
What was the affect of changing lifestyles on certain diseases?
Increased longevity which led to higher incidents of certain diseases (diabetes, heart disease, Alzheimers)
How did the inverntion of reliable birth control affect gender roles?
Gave women greater control over fertility
How did military technology affect wartime causalties?
Improved technology led to increased levels of wartime casualties
Improved military technologies (3)
New tactics (2)
Increased incident of wartime casualties (1)
Internal and external factors challenging politcal stability (5)
1. Ethnic and religious conflicts
2. Secessionist movements
3. Territorial partitions
4. Economic dependency
5. Legacies of colonialism
How did the world politcal order transform?
Europe dominated the global politcal order at the beginning of the century, but transregional politcal organizations dominated at the century's end
Which older land based empires collapsed? (3)
Why did older land based empires decline and/or collapse? (4)
Politcal and social discontent
By what means did imperial colonies achieve independence? (2)
Which coloies negotiated their independence? (2)
India and the Gold Coast from the British Empire
Which colonies achieved their iddependence through armed struggle? (3)
Algeria from French
Vietnam from French
Angola from Portuguese
What new movements challenged that status quo during imperial rule? (2)
Nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa who challenged imperial rule (3)
Ho Chi Minh
What did regional, religious, and ethnic movements achieve? (2)
Challenging colonial rule
Inheriting imperial boundries
What new identities were used to unite populations soread across national movements?
Transnational movements (3)
What ideologies were often used to undo imperialism? (2)
Where did movements to resdistribute land and resources develop? (3)
How ere colonial peoples affected by the change of old colonial boundries?
Population resettlements (3)
Indian Pakistan partition
Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine
Division of the Middle East into mandatory states (certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I)
How were relationships between imperial powers and former colonies maintained after the end of those empires?
Migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles
Migrations of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (3)
South Asians to Britain
Algerians to France
Filipinos to United States
What circumstances contributed to genocide and mass refugee populations?
Ethnic violence (4)
Refugee populations (2)
What ideologies did governments use to mobilize thier state's resources? (3)
Where were these state resources located? (3)
Consciption of colonial people for soldiers (2)
India (Gurkha soldiers)
How did governments mobilize their populations? (4)
Intensified forms of nationalism
How did the World Wars affect the nature of war?
Made them "total wars"
What global conflict was their in the first half of the century? (6)
1. Imperial expansion by European powers and Japan
2. Competition for resources
3. Ethnic conflict
4. Great power rivalries between Great Britian and Germany
5. Nationalist ideolies
6. Economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression
How did the global balance of economic and politcal power shift after WW2?
Evolved into the Cold War
How did the world's balance of power change during the Cold War?
United States and Soviet Union emerged as superpowers
What the the United States and Soviet Union emergence as superpowers lead to?
Ideologial struggle between capitalism and communism
What were the Cold War's military consequences? (2)
New military alliances
Proxy wars (war that results when opposing powers use third parties as substitutes for fighting each other directly)
Military alliances (2)
Proxy wars in (3)
What caused the Cold War to end?
Dissolution of the Soviet Union
How did various reactions to the violence of the 20th century compare?
Some opposed this trend while others intesified the conflicts
How did groups respons do the many wars?
Challenged the wars (Picasso's Guernica, anti nuclear movement during the cold war, Thich Quand Duc's self immolation)
How did others respond
Promoting nonviolence (Tolstoy, Ghandhi, MLK)
What alternatives were offered to the economic, politcal, and social status quo? (3)
1. Non aligned movement which presented an alternative politcal bloc to the Cold War
2. Tiananmen Square protests that promoted democracy in China
3. Anti Apartheid Movement
How did reactions by governments and militaries affect the degree of conflict during the 20th century?
They often further intensified it
Why did some movements use terrorism?
To achieve politcal aims
Violent movements (3)
IRA (Irish republican revolutionary military)
ETA (Basque National Liberation Movement)
Influences of global conflicts on popular culture are found in...? (4)
Dada (art movement of the Europeans)
What new governmental institutions emerged as a result of the 20th century conflicts?
Institutions of global governance
How did the new understandings of this era manifest themselver?
Describe the relationship between institutions of global governance and new social conditions
They shaped and adpated to each other
How did states respond to the 20th century economic challenges?
In a variety of ways
How did the communist states of the Soviet Union and China respond to the 20th century economic challenges?
1. Governments directed the national economies
2. Governments oversaw the development of industry
Soviet economic practice of planning to augment agricultural and industrial output by designated quotas for a limited period of usually five years
Great Leap Forward
Economic and social campaign of China which aimed to use China's vast population to rapidly transform the country from an agrarian economy into a modern communist society through the process of rapid industrialization and collectivization
How did the Great Depression affect governments' relationship to their economy
With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in the economy
What role did governments play in newly independent states after WW2?
Governments took on a strong role in guiding the economy to promote economic development
Governments promoting economic development (2)
Egypt: Nasser's promotion of economic developement
East Asia: Encouragement of export oriented economies
At the end of the 20th century, what did many governments encourage? (2)
Free market economic policies
Which countries/leaders promoted free market economic policies and economic liberalization? (3)
Britain: Margaret Thatcher
China: Deng Xiaoping
How did international organizations affect the relationship of states and peoples around the world?
States became increasingly interdependent (relationship in which each member is mutually dependent on the others)
What was the purpose of new internation organizations such as the League of Nations of the UN? (2)
Maintain world peace
Facilitate internationa cooperation
What were the economic effects of new international organizations?
Spread of the principles and practices associated with free market economics
Which new international organizations sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics? (3)
WTO (World Trade Organization)
What spurred the development of humanitarian organizations?
Humanitarian organizations (5)
UNICEF (United Nations Children's Fund )
Doctors Without Borders
WHO (World Health Organization)
What was the purpose of regional trading blocs?
Promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders
Regional trade agreements (2)
What was the politcal affect of multi national corportions?
Challenging of state authority and autonomy
Multi national corporationss (3)
How did these economic developments affect the distribution of world resources?
When people conceptualized society in new ways, what old assumptions did they challenge? (4)
How were reconfigured traditions spread?
What new notion gained traction?
Which documents illustrate the gained traction of human rights? (2)
UN Declartion of Human Rights
End of the White Australia Policy
What did increased interation among diverse people lead to? (2)
New cultural identites
New cultural identites (1)
Exclusionary reactions (3)
How did communites of faith respond tot eh rapid changes in the 20th century? (2)
Developed new forms of spirituality
Chose to emphasize particular aspects of practice within existing faiths and apply them to politcal issues
How did the global nature of culture affect sports?
Increased the practice of sports and reflected national and social aspirtations
Global sports (3)
World Cup soccer