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What is the procedure for arriving and departing at a gate with DC power?

Which airports?

-Shut down eng #1
-Open L1 door
-Connect bridge
-Connect DC pwr
-Shut down eng #2

-Close flight deck door
-Before start checklist below the line. (Doors - To go/lights out)
-Start eng #2
-Disconnect DC power
-Retract bridge
-Close L1 door
-Push and start eng #1



What are the procedures for exceeding Vmo after arrival?

-Logbook entry
-Speak to maintenance
-File IHR


What CAT is req'd for circling?

What are circling minimums?


1000ft AAE and charted vis 3sm vis.


What is the approach category for the Q400?

Engine inoperative?




What are the components of a stabilized approach?

IMC -> Prior to 1000ft AGL
-Sink rate of 500 - 700 ft/min.
-Fully configured
-Airspeed maximum of target + 10 with downward trend, then gradually reduce to Vref at touchdown.


What is the airport tarmac delay program?

What defines when a pax has the opportunity to deplane after 3 hours on the tarmac?

How often must a passenger be updated and what info must be given?

Allows passengers an opportunity to deplane. This option must be offered in the U.S after 3 hours unless it severely disrupts airport operations or security and safety are jeopardized.

Main cabin door open, aircraft at gate with adequate walkways or transportation.

Every 30 mins with ETD.


If delayed more than 90 minutes on the tarmac, what must the crew do?

120 mins?

180 mins?

Advise pax and give ETD. Arrange with lead FA to provide snack and beverage services within the next 30 mins.

120 mins: Update dispatch. Advise ATC at 2 hours. Snacks and beverage again.

180 mins: If not at gate, coordinate with ATC to return to gate. Update dispatch.


What is the criteria for no alternate IFR?

-Airport must be in Canada or continental USA.
-ETA +/- 1 hour: no risk of fog or precipitation. No t-storms forecasted or reported.
-2 runways: Forecast ceiling at least 1000ft above the FAF and vis of 3sm.
-1 runway: Ceiling 1500 ft above FAF and a vis of 6sm.
-2 separate suitable runways.
-Emergency lighting.
-At least two independent IFR approaches.


What are the alternate minimas in the U.S?

CAT I Precision or Non-Precision:
-HAT + 400ft
-Authorized landing minima + 1sm or 1600ft.

2 Navaids to two different runways:
-Highest CAT I minima + 200ft.
-Highest CAT I min vis + 1/2 sm or 800 ft.

*Can't use RNAV approaches.


At what temperature must cold weather procedures in the ramp service manual be observed?

Parked in excess of -15 °C or lower in excess of 3 hours.


When must 50 ft be added to MDA on a Non precision approach?

What if it is an LPV with DA?

-Single engine approach
-in the U.S
-When climb limited on a missed approach
Aircraft above max landing weight.
-Whenever flight crew thinks it's in the interest of safety.

If LPV with DA you don’t have to add 50ft.


When is a t/o alternate required.

-Anytime wx is below the lowest landing minima for departure airport.
-Vis less than RVR 2600/1/2 mile.


Can a capt who is PIC and flying with another captain ocupy the right seat?



When can you disconnect GPU?

At starter cutout


Laser Strike

-Look inside
-Advise ATC
-Stand down and contact standards pilot
-File IHR
-Get treated if required


What should you do after you land if you've experienced severe turbulence

-Stand down and speak to standards pilot.
-Logbook entry and advise maintenance.
-File IHR


What limitations apply to reduced thrust takeoffs?

-Not on an unimproved runway.
-Runway not contaminated
-Tailwind not in excess of 10 kts
-No windshear
-Not first takeoff of the day
-Anti-skid operative
-Prohibited when special departure takeoff procedure specifies full power at takeoff.
-Uptrim must be enabled and operative.


What gust factor do we add to Vref?

If you have a gust factor of 20 kts what Vref do you approach at?

1/2 of gust intensity.

Vref + 15. (We always fly at Vref + 5 in calm conditions).


When do we have to monitor the underlying navaid?

For a ground-based navaid, unless the approach plate is labelled with “(GNSS),” we are required to monitor the
underlying navaid. For example, the NDB DME 08R in YVR does not have (GNSS). Therefore, if you have
to do it (which, you will), the NDB must be monitored.


How do we monitor an underlying navaid?

For an NDB or VOR, this can be achieved by tuning and
identifying the navaid, and then bringing up the bearing pointers. Once the navaid is identified,
continuous aural monitoring of the navaid is not required, since the processor will remove the bearing
pointer from view if the signal is lost. For a localizer, the FMS will provide the message “LOC STEERING
ACTIVE” upon interception, so the localizer is actually providing course guidance – therefore the navaid is
being monitored and in use. If we are doing an SCDA and get NAV INTEG, a go-around is required.


If on vectors, is terrain and traffic separation provided?

When does it become the pilots responsibility?


When given direct to a fix on a SID, cleared for an approach or radar service terminated.


How do we determine driftdown speed?

The easiest way of doing it (slightly inaccurate but acceptable) is to use the Vclimb speed you had at takeoff – which will still be displayed. To get a more accurate number, refer to the driftdown speed chart in AOM 5.6.2. To get your current weight, refer to the FMS PERF page. Another place you can look is in Chapter 3 of the QRH, and obtain your 1.23x VSr speed for flap 0 for your current weight.


What are the symptoms of a Rapid Depressurization?

 Loud bang and rush of air
 Cabin fogging and sudden (possibly shocking) coldness
 Ear pain and possible hearing loss
 Loose, lightweight objects being displaced & blown around
 CABIN PRESS warning light, CABIN DIFF drops to 0 and CABIN ALT rapidly climbs to current


Levels of Ice Protection

Standard (Used in Non Icing):

Pitot/Static switches (1,2 and Stby) - On
Windshield heat - Off or norm
Intake bypass doors: Open or closed

Standard Plus (Used in icing conditions with no accumulation)

Pitot/Static switches (1,2 and Stby) - On
Windshield heat - Norm
Intake bypass doors: Open
Prop selector - On
On ground: Incr ref speed switch - Off
Inflight: Incr Ref speed switch - On

On (Used when icing has accumulated)

Pitot/Static switches (1,2 and Stby) - On
Windshield heat - Norm
Intake bypass doors: Open
Prop selector - On
Inflight: Incr Ref speed switch - On (Min 1000 ft, V2 + 20 flaps down, Vclimb + 20 flaps up.
Airframe Mode Select - Fast slow


What procedures do we use if taking off on a contaminated runway?

-Can't takeoff in a tailwind greater than 10 kts
-Runway conditions must be assessed for takeoff data to account for runway conditions.
-Takeoff Aerodata, TLR, ACARS
-Ensure x-wind limits for the reported RFI isn't exceeded.


What procedures do we use when landing on a contaminated runway.

-Ensure x-wind limits for the reported RFI isn't exceeded.
-Condition leavers max
-No reverse thrust
-Max tailwind of 10 kts
-Runway condition reports must be assessed


What is the definition of icing conditions on the Q400?

Inflight: SAT 5°C or colder and visible moisture.
Ground: SAT 10°C or colder and visible moisture. Also when conditions of snow, slush, standing water can freeze on engines, nacelles or inlet probes.


How do we know we are in severe icing?

Accumulation of ice on surfaces that don't normally accumulate ice such as aft of leading edges and side windows.


When do we use temp comp?

Landing in temperatures 0°C or colder.


When are monitored approach procedures used?

Non precision VNAV approach: Anytime vis is below the minima depicted on the approach chart.

CAT I Precision: RVR 2600ft or 1/2 sm

CAT II operations


What is the minimum altitude to shut off the INCR REF SPEED switch on approach?



If a star doesn't have a transition to an approach what is the lowest altitude you can use VNAV? EG. Arrival STARs into YYZ then ILS approach.

3000ft AFE


When can you set field on an RNAV approach?

When on a published transition in bot LNAV and VNAV.

*Never set field when level on a transition or in VS mode.


When do you call approach?

When you see "APPR" on the PFD. (Indicates approach scalling.

EG. "Rexdale 2000, altimeters and instruments crosscheck, approach"


When should flaps be raised to 15° during a stall recovery?

As a general rule waiting for your Vref speed as bugged and adding 5 knots will be the applicable speed for the new configuration.


When is LAHSO prohibited?

What is the weather minima for LAHSO?

-Wet or contaminated runway
-T-storms or windshear reported in the vicinity within 20 min prior to conducting the approach.
-Tailwinds greater than 3 kts
-X-winds greater than 15 kts
-MEL/CDL limitation increasing landing distance
-Approach intentionally flown above glideslope, for whatever reason.
-Runway doesn't have a functioning ILS, PAPI, or VASIS (FMS generated Vapp not sufficient)
-ATC must issue landing clearance with Land and Hold Short instruction prior to 1000 ft agl.
-5500 ft min
-Airport elevation less than 6000 ft ASL.
-Demonstrated landing Distance +1000ft must be less than available distance.
-USA at night: Must have serviceable LAHSO lighting.

Weather Mins:

PAPI and or VASI: Vis of 3nm and ceiling 1000ft

ILS only: Vis of 5nm and ceiling of 1500ft


What are limitations of an SCDA approach?

What is the required equipment for an SCDA approach?

-If approach angle greater than 3.5°, approach ban increases to 75% of charted value.
-Can't use remote altimeter setting.
-Final approach course shall be not more than 15° off runway centreline.
-Lateral portion of missed approach must be conducted at MAP.
-Descent angle from FAF: 2.9° to 4°

Required equipment: 2 baro altimeters, 1 radar alt, EGPWS


When is a circling procedure required?

What is the weather minima for a circling approach?

What is the circle to land procedure?

What if the circling minima is higher than 1000ft and 3sm?

Final approach course differs by runway alignment by 30° or more.

Ceiling 1000ft AGL, Vis at or above charted and no less than 3 miles.

Gear down flaps 15°. Prior to turning base, select landing flaps and decelerate to final approach speed. Complete landing checklist, turn final. Don't descend below MDA (1000ft) until intercepting normal visual glide path. Use HDG SEL. Disconnect AP when leaving MDA.

Add 100ft to MDA and 1sm to the charted vis.


What does M2 METW mean?

It's the MTOW in order to comply with method 2.


When deicing and taking considering LOUT, which temperature should you check to find out skin temperature?

Fuel temperature.


If the ceiling is 1200 ft and you expect to encounter icing at 1200ft, what must be the oil temp when you enter the icing conditions?

55°C (then 65°C 3 mins later)


Do you temp comp a CAT II DH?

No because it's an RA


After an engine failure, how long will you maintain the heading instructed to at 1000ft, and when can you accept vectors

Till MSA. Vectors can be accepted at 1000ft.


If flying a simple special, how long do you have to comply with it for?

3000ft AFE in IMC if RVs aren't available or 1000AFE VMC


If vertical guidance is lost when doing a visual approach, when should the AP be disengaged?

No lower than 1000ft AFE


Where are Interception Orders found?

Jeppeson Airway Manual


What instances of freezing precipitation are we not permitted to operate in?

 to operate in known (i.e. reported) severe icing;

 to take off into conditions where there is no holdover time;

 if the Holdover time has been exceeded and a Pre
-Takeoff Contamination Inspection (AOM 6.8.5)
determines contamination; or

 to attempt an approach and landing in reported
moderate or heavy freezing precipitation.


What are the established guidelines for operating in freezing precipitation?

 Flights shall not depart in freezing precipitation
unless the critical surfaces have been treated with
Type II, III or IV anti-icing fluid, either immediately
following a de-icing step or as part of a single-step
process. In other words, the flight may depart if a
holdover time exists for the conditions, either using the
Transport Canada Holdover Tables, or using the SureWx system (if available).
 Flights shall neither commence nor proceed into known icing conditions where the severity of the formation of ice on the aircraft may adversely affect
the safety of flight. (This does not mean forecast). Known means it actually must be occurring, e.g. a
PIREP by a similar aircraft.)

 Flights will not intentionally operate in an area
of known severe icing. This is generally defined as a recent PIREP by a transport category aircraft.

 Flights will not take-off nor conduct an approach
or landing at an airport experiencing moderate
or heavy freezing precipitation (FZRA, +FZRA, FZDZ,
+FZDZ), as defined by a METAR, SPECI, or a report
by ATC or FSS. It is acceptable to ask ATC or FSS
for an update. Light freezing precipitation is acceptable, provided that the other guidelines are followed.

 If severe icing is encountered at any point, pilots
shall follow the Severe Icing procedure outlined in AOM 3.16, and exit the severe icing conditions in the
fastest manner possible.

 If freezing rain or freezing drizzle is forecast, Dispatch will plan additional fuel to permit a hold
or diversion.


What is the difference in reported QNH from the planned QNH for takeoff?

A max decrease of 0.10


Who may help the crew in an aircraft security search for USA flights?

CSAs and GSAs


When is the 1000ft call made?

1000ft AFE


If ATC gives you a revised routing in flight, what is considered a significant change requiring dispatch to confirm sufficient FOB?

15 minutes


An RCMP officer checks in for the flight. She is required to carry her firearm and required to have immediate access to it in the performance of her duties. What is required?

The officer must complete the Notice to Escort Officers and armed individual form, which will be provided to the captain?


What is Min BRF?

Ramp fuel - Ramp fuel - Enrt Cont


What is Min Resrv fuel

45 min for holding at 1500 ft at Landing Weight


What is Alternate fuel

Fuel from dest MAP, climb, cruise, and descent to alternate MAP. Includes VIA if required.


When is a new flight plan required?

How much fuel can you add to a flight without notifying dispatch?

1) An increase of 1000 lbs to PTOW
2) Delay of 2 hours past planned departure time
3) Change in fuel requirements
4) Reroutes
5) Changes to alternates or whenever a TO alternate becomes required.
6) Additions or deletions of performance restrictive MELs.


When "may" you declare minimum fuel?

If landing will occur with fuel quantity less than Altn fuel + min reserve


What is required to fuel when passengers are on board?

2 FAs near the emergency exits. Advise pax fuelling in progress.


If a taxi delay is encountered, when should the crew communicate with dispatch?

If the delay is going to be 10 minutes or more.


Can you operate VFR? If so what are the restrictions?


Within terminal airspace. When departing, clear of class A airspace but within class B,C,D, or E.

When arriving clear of Class A and B airspace.

Daytime hours

Min flight and ground vis of 3nm and clear of cloud by 500 ft vertically and 1 sm horizontally.


During takeoff, when do you remove your hand from the power leaver?

After you call "Set Power"


Describe descent profile 1 (High Speed):

Profile 2 (Mid speed):

Profile 3 (Low speed):

1) Increase from 238k to 277k at 18 000ft, 277 from 18000 till 12000ft. at 12000dt slow to 238k at 10000ft. Maintain 238k.

2) 200k from FL 250 to sea level.

3) 160k from FL 250 to sea level


What is the maximum V/S in a step down approach?



Does the destination airport have to meet alternate weather minimums to be listed in method 2 analysis?


5.3.1 pg 5-30


What category of approach minima does a takeoff alternate or driftdown alternate require?

CAT D. Chances are you will be one engine inop therefore CAT D required for planning purposes.


If the aircraft has been parked for more than 3 hours in temperature of -40 degrees or -15 degrees Celsius,what procedures must be followed?

Winter Ops guide Section 2.3


When is a critical surface inspection required (CSI)?

During all ground icing operations.

Ref: Winter Ops Guide 2.2.1


What are the critical surfaces on the Q400?


Wings (including leading edges and wing tips)

Horizontal and vertical stabilizers (including any other stabilizing devices)

All flight controls and cavities (ailerons, rudder, elevators and spoilers)

Engine and APU intakes


Wheel well doors

Pitot static ports and probes

Air conditioning inlets and exits

Fuel tank vents

Ref: Winter ops guide 2.2.2


When must a pre-takeoff contamination inspection be completed?

Within 5 minutes of takeoff when your HOT has reached the lower range of the HOT period.


When should the lowest operational useful temperature (LOUT)be verified with the deicing/anti icing provider?

When fuel temperature is colder than OAT because fuel temperature is an indicator of skin temperature.


How do you determine the intensity of snowfall in order to determine HOT?

Snowfall Intensities as a function of prevailing visibility. This is found in the Supplemental Procedures Manual on the ICAS.


If you have taken a spray during intermittent snow, what credit can you apply to HOT for the period it isn't snowing?

None because the fluid degrades over time.


What ar the conditions of operating in conditions of ICE PELLETS?

Type I and IV fluids applied.

Allowance time starts at final application start time.

No provision to extend the allowance time when the temperature is below 0 degrees.

If precipitation stops the aircraft must takeoff within 90 minutes of the start of HOT or return for driving and the temperature can't decrease.

In light to moderate ice pellets condition, the existence of pellets must not be visible in the fluid otherwise the fluid has failed and you can't depart.

Ref: winter ops guide 3.2


What is the procedure for deicing frozen brakes?

Use heat cart then if required spray type I. Do not use type IV!

Ref: Winter Ops Guide 3.3.4

You can also repeatedly apply brakes at max pressure to try and break the bond. Ref Winter Ops Guide section 12 pg 33.


How can you get a Sure Wx HOT if the ICAS app isn't working?

ACARS text to dispatch SureWx

Ref Winter Ops Guide 3.4


What is the max taxi speed?
....when slippery?

30 kts

10 kts


What must oil temp be when taking off in icing conditions?

What if you're taking off in non icing conditions but will encounter icing shortly after, for example at 1200ft?

55 C to be at 65 C after 3 minutes.

The 55 C should be at the start of icing conditions.

Ref: Winter Ops Guide 5.0


If you activate a temp comp and you have the IAF sandwich, how do you correct the altitude for the waypoint outside the label?

Delete the altitude for the waypoint outside the label. If there is a no link then make the altitude the same as that inside the label.

Ref: Winter Ops Guide 7.1.2


If the aircraft has been parked in -40 C or colder for more than 2 hours, what should the engine oil temp be heated to?

20 C

Winter ops Guide pg 33


How soon should anti icing fluid be applied after deicing fluid?

How many trucks should be used when deicing?

3 min.

Ideally 2. If only one then the deicing and antiicing fluid have to be applied in steps.

Ref: GIM 5.3


If you have a medical emergency should you stop on the runway, taxiway, apron or continue to gate?

Continue to gate.


If you stop on the runway after an emergency and you get inspected by crash fire rescue, when is it recommended not to taxi.

Visible aircraft damage, smoke, fire or leaks.


When are Monitored Approaches required?

What is the aircraft requirement for monitored approaches?

Non precision: Anytime vis is below published minima.

Precision: anytime vis is below 1/2 sm or RVR 2600.

CAT II approach.

The autopilot must be working.


When should the call "Autopilot on" be made?

When AP appears on the PFD.


Sidestep procedures for YVR?

What is the minimum distance ATC will issue/offer it?

Brief technique to use if offered. Brief about re engaging the AP and FMA.
Set back up ILS frequency.


When must a PCI be conducted even though you haven't reached the lower end of your holdover time?

Occasional heavy snow and the min holdover time must be at least 20 minutes. There must be at least 5 minutes of moderate snow holdover time remaining.

The inspection must be carried out within 5 minutes prior to takeoff and takeoff must be completed within 5 minutes after the inspection otherwise return for deicing.


How do uncontaminated surfaces that have been sprayed appear?


Where is fluid failure likely to be detected?

Glossy, wet and smooth.

The precipitation will appear in the fluids. Blanching (whitening) if surfaces.

Spoilers and trailing edges.

GIM 4.9.6


What is the allowance time for small hail similar to?

Moderate Ice pellets. Found in Allowance times.

GIM 4.10


What holdover condition is GS snow pellets equivalent to?



Snow pellets or small hail. Use ice pellets HOT.

GIM 4.10.1


What is the latest you should have a star loaded.

Before 12nm of the first waypoint on the star.

Ref: Read and Sign 17-04


What is the max distance for a takeoff alternate at max weight?


Ref: e-learning


What is a critical phase of flight?

Any time below 10000ft, except on the ground with park brake set.

AOM 1.7.6


When must a checklist be repeated in its entirety?

Prior to takeoff if:

Any flight control is repositioned (or not in its proper condition) following the completion of a checklist.

There is a lengthy delay prior to takeoff.

Anytime there is an interruption for routine communication.

Ref AOM 1.9.3 pg 1-32


When should you not use sure wx?

Temperature below -14 or above +7 C.

Active frost or rain/drizzle on a cold soaked wings.

BLSN reported.

Ice pellets reported.

If freezing drizzle is reported but sure wx reports freezing rain.

If two types of precip is falling but sure wx doesn't report he more restrictive precip condition.


What conditions should engine oil preheat take place?

When aircraft is in -40 C for two hours or more? Use engine heater or motor over engine every two hours until oil temperatures are at 20 C.

Ref: Winter Ops Guide Part 12. Pg 32.


After the lower end of a HOT has expired a pre takeoff inspection of representative surface is required. How long is this inspection valid for?

5 minutes.

Ref. Winter ops exam. Winter ops guide.


What are the standard baggage weights?

Go kart: 13 lbs

Checked: 33 lbs

Ref FOM 7.9.5


Is a visual approach allowed at night?

Yes, provided all min IFR altitudes are respected.

Ref: AOM 3.17 (PFD Altitude) pg 3-114


When are operations at designated aerodromes without ARFF permitted?

Diversion aerodrome.

Non revenue passenger loads.

Ref: FOM 7.17.3


If FRA is above 1000 ft AGL in icing conditions, what speed should be targeted at 1000ft?

V2+20 and Select ref switch on.

Ref: AOM 3.14 pg 3-76


What fluids are approved to Deice propellers?

Type I and III

Ref: Winter Ops Guide 3.3.2


What is an advantage of Type III deicing fluid?

It can be applied as deicing and anti-icing fluid in a single step process.

Ref: Winter Ops Guide 3.2


When should snowfall intensities as a function of prevailing visibility chart not be used?

When there are other visibility reducing phenomena reported in addition to snow. E.g. BR, FG, RA etc., instead use METAR intensity of snowfall.

Ref: Winter Ops Guide 3.2


What are examples of abnormal occurrences that must be reported to maintenance?

Examples include but are not limited to:

• Overweight landings

• Flight in severe turbulence

• Exceeding of airspeed/acceleration limits

• Exposure to volcanic ash

• Ingestion of dry chemical extinguishing

• Bird strikes

• Lightning strikes

• High winds or jet blast

• Spillage of corrosive substances

• Hail

• Burst tire

• Propeller strike

• Misfuelling

• Overspeed - overtemp - overtorque incidents

• Ground collision

Ref: FOM 7.7